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Cosma arrow.gif communication arrow.gif knowledge arrow.gif realm arrow.gif terrestrial arrow.gif life arrow.gif animal arrow.gif invertebrate arrow.gif bee
bee : any of numerous hymenopterous insects that differ from the related wasps especially in the heavier hairier body and in having sucking as well as chewing mouthparts, that feed on pollen and nectar, and that store both and often also honey (bee, 2015) [1]blank.gifWebster | OneLook | Visuwords
Bees are flying insects closely related to wasps and ants, known for their role in pollination and, in the case of the best-known bee species, the European honey bee, for producing honey and beeswax. Bees are a monophyletic lineage within the superfamily Apoidea, presently considered as a clade Anthophila. There are nearly 20,000 known species of bees in seven to nine recognized families, though many are undescribed and the actual number is probably higher. They are found on every continent except Antarctica, in every habitat on the planet that contains insect-pollinated flowering plants.

Some species including honey bees, bumblebees, and stingless bees live socially in colonies. Bees are adapted for feeding on nectar and pollen, the former primarily as an energy source and the latter primarily for protein and other nutrients. Most pollen is used as food for larvae. Bee pollination is important both ecologically and commercially; the decline in wild bees has increased the value of pollination by commercially managed hives of honey bees. (Bee, 2015) [2]blank.gif Wikipedia

Beekeeping (or apiculture) is the maintenance of honey bee colonies, commonly in hives, by humans. A beekeeper (or apiarist) keeps bees in order to collect their honey and other products that the hive produces (including beeswax, propolis, pollen, and royal jelly), to pollinate crops, or to produce bees for sale to other beekeepers. A location where bees are kept is called an apiary or "bee yard". Depictions of humans collecting honey from wild bees date to 15,000 years ago; efforts to domesticate them are shown in Egyptian art around 4,500 years ago. Simple hives and smoke were used and honey was stored in jars, some of which were found in the tombs of pharaohs such as Tutankhamun. It wasn't until the 18th century that European understanding of the colonies and biology of bees allowed the construction of the moveable comb hive so that honey could be harvested without destroying the entire colony. (Apiculture, 2015) [3]blank.gif Wikipedia

invertebrate blank.gifThe most well known invertebrate is the arthropod. Here are some famous arthropods:
insect blank.gifbeetleblank.gifbutterflyblank.gifantblank.gifbeeblank.gif arachnid blank.gifspiderblank.gifscorpionblank.gif crustacean blank.gifshrimpblank.giflobsterblank.gifcrab


Researchers Figure Out How Bees Pick Up Messages Flowers Send

How bees detect flowers' electric fields

How bees sense a flower’s electric field (Viviane Callier, AAAS Science Magazine)

How Bees Can See the Invisible

Bees and Flowers Communicate With Electricity

Bumblebees sense flowers' electric fields (Ben Aviss Reporter, BBC Nature)
Bees use the 'force' to choose the best flowers, study finds (Pete Spotts, Christian Science Monitor)


Urban beekeeping flourishes: Inside the L.A. push to legalize backyard hives

TEDxBoston - Noah Wilson-Rich - Urban Beekeeping

Urban Beekeeping in Los Angeles

How is Honey Harvested?

L.A. City Hall buzz: Backyard beekeeping should be legalized (Emily Alpert Reyes, LA Times)
Could L.A. Become a Honeybee Mecca? The Backwards Beekeepers Are on It (Gendy Alimurung, LA Weekly)

Bees and Paris: the City of Light is buzzing (Patti Miller, The Australian)

Beekeeping as a Business (EatDrinkBetter)

Honey love.org
Backwards Beekeepers

Backyard Beekeeping (Out Door Place)
Urban beekeeping (Wikipedia)


These are links to resources organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. more...


Subject Specific Links

Nature, Bee (PBS) BBC wildlife Finder, Bees
Lots of information about Bees (and Wasps)

The Full Wiki

OneLook Merriam-Webster Free Wiktionary Visuwords

A-Z Animals, Bee The Electronic Zoo, Bees Bee (Wikipedia)

Specific Specific Pet Spiders and Insects (Internet Public Library)
Dewey 595.7 Insects (BUBL LINK)
Free Internet Public Library dmoz Commercial Best of the Web

DuckDuckGo WolframAlpha

shop Amazon eBay gift Zazzle

Internet Apiculture and Beekeeping Archive

Library of Congress

WorldCat (OAIster) Library of Congress UPenn Online Books Open Library Hathi Trust

ISBNdb Google Books eBooks.com Barnes and Noble Amazon eBay Books

National Geographic's Creature Feature

Open Education Consortium

International Bee Research Association


NPR Archives Google News

American Bee Journal

Google Scholar



How Does a Bee Fly?


Silence of the Bees, Inside the Hive (PBS)


Survey: Almost Half of All Bee Hives in the U.S. Died in Past Year

Bee study lifts lid on hive habits (Ian Sample, The Guardian)

Bee Die-Offs Second-Highest Ever in Past Year (Lori Cuthbert, Discovery News)
Why more research needs to be done to save honey bees (Jessica Mendoza, Christian Science Monitor)
A Sharp Spike in Honeybee Deaths Deepens a Worrisome Trend (Michael Wines, New York Times)
Nation's beekeepers lost 40 percent of bees in 2014-15 (University of Maryland, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Eureka Alert)

Why Are the Bees Dying? (Insteading)
Colony collapse disorder (Wikipedia)


How to Draw a Bee

How to Draw a Bee


Insects Bees - Google News
  • Over 100 bees found dead in Jurong West HDB, bee hive found in Fuhua Secondary School - The Straits Times Today 4:09 am
    Over 100 bees found dead in Jurong West HDB, bee hive found in Fuhua Secondary SchoolThe Straits TimesSINGAPORE - More than a hundred dead bees were found in a Housing Board block in Jurong on Thursday (April 27) morning, and a bee hive was later found in a nearby school. The dead insects were found at Block 485, Jurong West Avenue 1, Lianhe ...and more »
  • Don't fear the bee swarm - The Southern Today 4:04 am
    The SouthernDon't fear the bee swarmThe SouthernIn the middle of the swarm, protected by worker bees, is the queen. Scouts are sent out to find a suitable location for a hive while the queen bee rests. prev. next. It's a sight that can induce panic. Literally thousands of bees forming a buzzing ball ...
  • Bee research aided by citizen scientists - Farm and Dairy Yesterday
    Farm and DairyBee research aided by citizen scientistsFarm and DairyShe noted that she's interested in having citizen-scientists help map the distribution and abundance of bees and other beneficial insects in relation to where cucurbits are grown. “For example, a lot of bees and herbivores have been moving with squash ...
  • Johnson County landowner helping out the bees with pollinator habitat - KCRG Yesterday
    KCRGJohnson County landowner helping out the bees with pollinator habitatKCRGWhat's he's done is offer nearly every acre of his property located west of Solon as pollinator habitat to attract bees and other beneficial insects. Terry Edmonds has a rural home surround by 55 acres of land. He just decided that 41 acres of his ...
  • College in Omaha Uses Bee Hive for Insect Education | Nebraska ... - U.S. News & World Report Yesterday
    U.S. News & World ReportCollege in Omaha Uses Bee Hive for Insect Education | Nebraska ...U.S. News & World ReportAn assistant biology professor at a central Omaha college has embarked on an experiment to add a honeybee hive to the campus in order to promote education ...College in Omaha uses bee hive for insect educationBryan-College Station Eagleall 2 news articles »
  • Bugs and weeds aren't always garden pests; bees and butterflies help plants thrive, Virginia Beach students learn - Virginian-Pilot Yesterday
    Virginian-PilotBugs and weeds aren't always garden pests; bees and butterflies help plants thrive, Virginia Beach students learnVirginian-Pilot“We are also making an insect hotel with pine combs and grass,” said fourth-grader Jonathan Bland, the son of Kimberly Bland. “We need the bugs. They are necessary for food.” The students are particularly interested in attracting bees, butterflies and ...
  • The ever-growing case for eating insects - A.V. Club Tuesday
    A.V. ClubThe ever-growing case for eating insectsA.V. ClubWe're still a ways off from picking up rotisserie bee larvae from the supermarket, but the fact that some restaurants have dipped its gastronomic toes into the insect waters illustrates how our minds are changing about eating bugs. (That being said ...
  • Black-bee fly arrives in UK: Insect called Anthrax anthrax found in English garden - Express.co.uk Apr 12, 2017
    Express.co.ukBlack-bee fly arrives in UK: Insect called Anthrax anthrax found in English gardenExpress.co.ukThe black bee-fly gets its name purely because anthrax is Greek for coal, a recognition of the insect's coal-like colouration. Sufferers of the bacterial disease are often left with coal-like, black-stained lesions during the critical stage of the ...
  • How to Bring Bees and Other Beneficial Insects into Your Garden - Paste Magazine Apr 11, 2017
    Paste MagazineHow to Bring Bees and Other Beneficial Insects into Your GardenPaste MagazineBees are an essential part of our food chain — we all depend on them for our own survival — but today they are threatened by colony collapse disorder, putting our entire food system at risk. “Pollination by insects is essential for many plants to ...
  • 'Bees: Only insects that produce food for humans' - Times of India Apr 10, 2017
    Times of India'Bees: Only insects that produce food for humans'Times of IndiaElaborating further, Paliwal said that bees are unique social insects and probably one of the best-known insects in the world. It performs a vital role in the pollination of flowering plants, including crops and vegetables in the forests. Honeybees are ...

Insects Beekeeping - Google News
  • Legal Action Taken Against EPA to Protect Bees, Environment from Pesticide-Coated Seeds - Wire Service Canada (press release) 56 minutes ago
    Legal Action Taken Against EPA to Protect Bees, Environment from Pesticide-Coated SeedsWire Service Canada (press release)And beekeepers who suffer damage to their hives have virtually no recourse. Along with honey bees, wild bees and other beneficial insects are in jeopardy. Overuse of the seed coating insecticides threatens sustainable agriculture going forward. EPA ...
  • ASU Beekeepers Unveil First On-Campus Hive - The Appalachian Online 57 minutes ago
    ASU Beekeepers Unveil First On-Campus HiveThe Appalachian OnlineThe event was created and sponsored by the beekeeping club at Appalachian State University. Junior sustainable development majors Katie Payne and Hallie Graves are the presidents and founders of the club. About two years ago, the duo decided they ...
  • Pet Bees a Buzzing Headache for Hangzhou Residents - Sixth Tone Today 6:08 am
    Pet Bees a Buzzing Headache for Hangzhou ResidentsSixth ToneHangzhou's department of agriculture indicated that its only responsibility is to provide technical guidance for the beekeeping industry, while the urban management department said that bees fall outside of its jurisdiction because they are insects ...
  • 5 Things to Do in and around SouthCoast - Special ... - SouthCoastToday.com Tuesday
    5 Things to Do in and around SouthCoast - Special ...SouthCoastToday.comFRIDAY, APRIL 28Fall River author David Leite appears at PartnersWhat: Please join Partners Village Store and Kitchen as we welcome cookbook author, food ...and more »
  • The ever-growing case for eating insects - A.V. Club Tuesday
    A.V. ClubThe ever-growing case for eating insectsA.V. ClubAt first it might require investigation to find a local beekeeper who practices drone removal, but if one does, it's a really tasty insect that is locally available, already part of the ecology, and currently wasted. Like honey, it can reflect ...
  • Bees take the sting out of bad times with tobacco - Daily Nation Apr 21, 2017
    Daily NationBees take the sting out of bad times with tobaccoDaily NationBenson Rioba in his farm in Kuria, Migori County where he now practices beekeeping after initially doing tobacco farming. He sells their raw honey to traders from Sirare, Kehancha and Migori markets from Sh300 to Sh500 a kilo. PHOTO | VIVERE ...
  • Beekeeper Jean Vose to Bring Pollinator Know-How to Ladies Day - The Lincoln County News (subscription) Apr 18, 2017
    The Lincoln County News (subscription)Beekeeper Jean Vose to Bring Pollinator Know-How to Ladies DayThe Lincoln County News (subscription)“Honeybees, along with many other insects – pollinator and nonpollinator alike – are in a declining state of health and, therefore, populations are decreasing as a result,” Vose said. The main reasons for global bee decline are industrial agriculture ...
  • Elkhorn beekeeper to share the 'buzz' on the dwindling insects - Gazettextra Apr 8, 2017
    GazettextraElkhorn beekeeper to share the 'buzz' on the dwindling insectsGazettextraDavid Koester, a retired Elkhorn man whose beekeeping hobby turned into a passion, is giving a presentation on his pastime from 1 to 2 p.m. Wednesday, April 19 at Heritage House in Elkhorn. “I think people don't realize how important honeybees are to ...
  • Beekeeping being debated in Longmeadow | WWLP.com - wwlp.com Apr 6, 2017
    wwlp.comBeekeeping being debated in Longmeadow | WWLP.comwwlp.comLONGMEADOW, Mass. (WWLP) – The buzz in Longmeadow is all about bees. Two opposing petitions will likely be up for discussion when town meeting rolls ...and more »
  • Swaner EcoCenter focuses on small bugs' big worlds - The Park Record Mar 31, 2017
    The Park RecordSwaner EcoCenter focuses on small bugs' big worldsThe Park RecordAppropriately titled "Small Wonders: The Expansive World of Insects," it will have an opening reception from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. Saturday, April 1, and stay up until Monday, May 15. The center is ... "There is a beekeeping suit that kids can try on ...


Editor Mary E. Hopper
Contributor Neil R. Carlson



© Cosma creator mehopper editor mehopper revised 7/14/2016 v.1.5

[[@ Caffeine in Plants Draws Bees: Studyhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2tlAEU5QGKoCaffeine Makes For Busy Bees, Not Productive Ones (Ed Yong, National Geographic)http://phenomena.nationalgeographic.com/2015/10/15/how-plants-manipulate-bees-with-caffeine/ ]]
  1. ^ bee. (2015). In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary (11th ed.). Retrieved June 21, 2015, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/bee
  2. ^ Bee. (2015). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved January 15, 2015, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bee
  3. ^ Apiculture. (2015). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved January 15, 2015, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beekeeping