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Cosma arrow.gif communication arrow.gif knowledge arrow.gif realm arrow.gif terrestrial arrow.gif life arrow.gif animal arrow.gif invertebrate arrow.gif bee
bee : any of numerous hymenopterous insects that differ from the related wasps especially in the heavier hairier body and in having sucking as well as chewing mouthparts, that feed on pollen and nectar, and that store both and often also honey (bee, 2015) [1]blank.gifWebster | OneLook | Visuwords
Bees are flying insects closely related to wasps and ants, known for their role in pollination and, in the case of the best-known bee species, the European honey bee, for producing honey and beeswax. Bees are a monophyletic lineage within the superfamily Apoidea, presently considered as a clade Anthophila. There are nearly 20,000 known species of bees in seven to nine recognized families, though many are undescribed and the actual number is probably higher. They are found on every continent except Antarctica, in every habitat on the planet that contains insect-pollinated flowering plants.

Some species including honey bees, bumblebees, and stingless bees live socially in colonies. Bees are adapted for feeding on nectar and pollen, the former primarily as an energy source and the latter primarily for protein and other nutrients. Most pollen is used as food for larvae. Bee pollination is important both ecologically and commercially; the decline in wild bees has increased the value of pollination by commercially managed hives of honey bees. (Bee, 2015) [2]blank.gif Wikipedia

Beekeeping (or apiculture) is the maintenance of honey bee colonies, commonly in hives, by humans. A beekeeper (or apiarist) keeps bees in order to collect their honey and other products that the hive produces (including beeswax, propolis, pollen, and royal jelly), to pollinate crops, or to produce bees for sale to other beekeepers. A location where bees are kept is called an apiary or "bee yard". Depictions of humans collecting honey from wild bees date to 15,000 years ago; efforts to domesticate them are shown in Egyptian art around 4,500 years ago. Simple hives and smoke were used and honey was stored in jars, some of which were found in the tombs of pharaohs such as Tutankhamun. It wasn't until the 18th century that European understanding of the colonies and biology of bees allowed the construction of the moveable comb hive so that honey could be harvested without destroying the entire colony. (Apiculture, 2015) [3]blank.gif Wikipedia

invertebrate blank.gifThe most well known invertebrate is the arthropod. Here are some famous arthropods:
insect blank.gifbeetleblank.gifbutterflyblank.gifantblank.gifbeeblank.gif arachnid blank.gifspiderblank.gifscorpionblank.gif crustacean blank.gifshrimpblank.giflobsterblank.gifcrab


Researchers Figure Out How Bees Pick Up Messages Flowers Send

How bees detect flowers' electric fields

How bees sense a flower’s electric field (Viviane Callier, AAAS Science Magazine)

How Bees Can See the Invisible

Bees and Flowers Communicate With Electricity

Bumblebees sense flowers' electric fields (Ben Aviss Reporter, BBC Nature)
Bees use the 'force' to choose the best flowers, study finds (Pete Spotts, Christian Science Monitor)


Urban beekeeping flourishes: Inside the L.A. push to legalize backyard hives

TEDxBoston - Noah Wilson-Rich - Urban Beekeeping

Urban Beekeeping in Los Angeles

How is Honey Harvested?

L.A. City Hall buzz: Backyard beekeeping should be legalized (Emily Alpert Reyes, LA Times)
Could L.A. Become a Honeybee Mecca? The Backwards Beekeepers Are on It (Gendy Alimurung, LA Weekly)

Bees and Paris: the City of Light is buzzing (Patti Miller, The Australian)

Beekeeping as a Business (EatDrinkBetter)

Honey love.org
Backwards Beekeepers

Backyard Beekeeping (Out Door Place)
Urban beekeeping (Wikipedia)


These are links to resources organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. more...


Subject Specific Links

Nature, Bee (PBS) BBC wildlife Finder, Bees
Lots of information about Bees (and Wasps)

The Full Wiki

OneLook Merriam-Webster Free Wiktionary Visuwords

A-Z Animals, Bee The Electronic Zoo, Bees Bee (Wikipedia)

Specific Specific Pet Spiders and Insects (Internet Public Library)
Dewey 595.7 Insects (BUBL LINK)
Free Internet Public Library dmoz Commercial Best of the Web

DuckDuckGo WolframAlpha

shop Amazon eBay gift Zazzle

Internet Apiculture and Beekeeping Archive

Library of Congress

WorldCat (OAIster) Library of Congress UPenn Online Books Open Library Hathi Trust

ISBNdb Google Books eBooks.com Barnes and Noble Amazon eBay Books

National Geographic's Creature Feature

Open Education Consortium

International Bee Research Association


NPR Archives Google News

American Bee Journal

Google Scholar



How Does a Bee Fly?


Silence of the Bees, Inside the Hive (PBS)


Survey: Almost Half of All Bee Hives in the U.S. Died in Past Year

Bee study lifts lid on hive habits (Ian Sample, The Guardian)

Bee Die-Offs Second-Highest Ever in Past Year (Lori Cuthbert, Discovery News)
Why more research needs to be done to save honey bees (Jessica Mendoza, Christian Science Monitor)
A Sharp Spike in Honeybee Deaths Deepens a Worrisome Trend (Michael Wines, New York Times)
Nation's beekeepers lost 40 percent of bees in 2014-15 (University of Maryland, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Eureka Alert)

Why Are the Bees Dying? (Insteading)
Colony collapse disorder (Wikipedia)


How to Draw a Bee

How to Draw a Bee


Insects Bees - Google News
  • Blue Sky Science: How do bees make honey? - Reedsburg Times Press 7 minutes ago
    Blue Sky Science: How do bees make honey?Reedsburg Times PressBlue Sky Science is a collaboration of the Wisconsin State Journal and the Morgridge Institute for Research. The questions are posed by visitors to Saturday Science events at the Discovery Building, a monthly series that features interactive ...
  • EXCHANGE: Bee numbers down, but everyone can fight problem - News & Observer Today 1:10 am
    EXCHANGE: Bee numbers down, but everyone can fight problemNews & ObserverMany of the world's most important and nutritious crops are pollinated by insects, with bees, particularly honey bees, being the most important pollinator, said Gene E. Robinson, the director of the Carl R. Woese Institute of Genomic Biology and bee ...and more »
  • Lawmakers Seek To Protect Bee Colonies From Bears - Patch.com Yesterday
    Patch.comLawmakers Seek To Protect Bee Colonies From BearsPatch.comCurrently, using deadly force against black bears in defense of livestock is legal, but the Maryland Department of Natural Resources does not recognize bees as such, instead classifying them as just insects. The bill, sponsored by Delegate Mike McKay, ...
  • Bees risk extinction from chemical pesticides - The Island.lk (subscription) Yesterday
    Bees risk extinction from chemical pesticidesThe Island.lk (subscription)Conservationist Rachel Carson, who led the charge to ban the chemical killer DDT in the US, once wrote: "Those who contemplate the beauty of the earth find reserves of strength that will endure as long as life lasts." Let's let the miraculous strength ...
  • Local News: Bring Back the Bee (2/18/17) | Daily Dunklin Democrat - Daily Dunklin Democrat Friday
    National GeographicLocal News: Bring Back the Bee (2/18/17) | Daily Dunklin DemocratDaily Dunklin DemocratThere are over 4000 native bee species helping with pollination of native plants in the yard. Honeybees are not part of the native group but came to America ...Honeybee Buzz Literally Makes Flowers Explode With PollenNational Geographicall 3 news articles »
  • Plant wildflowers now to attract bees, butterflies later - Reno Gazette Journal Friday
    Reno Gazette JournalPlant wildflowers now to attract bees, butterflies laterReno Gazette JournalAttractive flower gardens can be a beautiful addition to your landscaping while creating suitable habitat for native pollinators. Native insect pollinators include bees, butterflies, beneficial flies and wasps. With a few simple changes, you can ensure ...
  • Leafcutters are solitary bees - Martinsburg Journal Friday
    Leafcutters are solitary beesMartinsburg JournalBumble bees are native insects. Like honey bees, they are social insects, but their colonies are much smaller. While honey bee colonies can contain upwards of 50,000 workers, bumble bee colonies usually contain somewhere between 50 and 400.
  • Crop-Protecting Fungicides May Be Hurting The Honey Bees - NPR - NPR Feb 16, 2017
    NPRCrop-Protecting Fungicides May Be Hurting The Honey Bees - NPRNPRBees have been dying in unprecedented numbers. A new study has found that fungi-destroying chemicals may make it harder for bees to metabolize their food.and more »
  • Is your garden fungicide killing bees? Chemical that protects roses from disease damages the insects' muscles - Daily Mail Feb 13, 2017
    Daily MailIs your garden fungicide killing bees? Chemical that protects roses from disease damages the insects' musclesDaily MailThese insects had lower levels of adenosine triphosphate – the energy source which fuels their flight muscles. Just as food and drugs work together to harm the human body, fungicides work with compounds found in plants to alter honey bees' physiology.
  • Robo-Bees Could Aid Insects with Pollination Duties - Scientific American Feb 11, 2017
    Scientific AmericanRobo-Bees Could Aid Insects with Pollination DutiesScientific AmericanMini drones sporting horsehair coated in a sticky gel could one day take the pressure off beleaguered bee populations by transporting pollen from plant to plant, researchers said. Roughly three-quarters of the world's flowering plants and about 35 ...Serious bees-ness: Pollinator drones could replace endangered insectsRTRobot bees could pollinate crops in the event of insect extinctionSFGateCould autonomo...

Insects Beekeeping - Google News
  • EXCHANGE: Bee numbers down, but everyone can fight problem - The News Tribune Today 1:11 am
    EXCHANGE: Bee numbers down, but everyone can fight problemThe News TribuneBees, pollinators for much of the world's food supply, are still suffering severe drops in their populations. Experts and local beekeepers say the best way for the average person to help is to avoid using harmful pesticides in their gardens, plant bee ...and more »
  • Bill pits bears against bees as Maryland lawmakers seek to protect ... - Baltimore Sun Feb 16, 2017
    Baltimore SunBill pits bears against bees as Maryland lawmakers seek to protect ...Baltimore SunMembers of far Western Maryland's House delegation are asking lawmakers to extend the same level of protection to bees against bears that it now gives calves ...and more »
  • A Bee Mogul Confronts the Crisis in His Field - New York Times Feb 16, 2017
    New York TimesA Bee Mogul Confronts the Crisis in His FieldNew York TimesA mesmerizing look inside the beehives and pollination operation of a third-generation commercial beekeeper as he ships his bees across California for almond season. By MELISSA LYTTLE, JOSHUA THOMAS and LOGAN JAFFE on Publish Date February ... He ...
  • Pollinator workshop set for Feb. 24 - La Crosse Tribune Feb 13, 2017
    Pollinator workshop set for Feb. 24La Crosse TribuneTopics to be covered include backyard pollinator plantings; the link between wildlife and pollinator habitat; seed mix selection; prairie establishment techniques and biology of pollinating insects and beekeeping. Cost of the workshop is $12, which ...
  • Get the buzz on beekeeping - Asheboro Courier Tribune Feb 10, 2017
    Get the buzz on beekeepingAsheboro Courier Tribune... of Beekeeping” at the Asheboro Public Library, 201 Worth St. on Wednesday, Feb. 22, at 6:30 p.m.. Carol Kivett of the Randolph County Beekeeper Association will talk about how the insects make your garden bloom, take a look at supplies you need to ...
  • St. Albert to consider bylaw changes to allow urban beekeeping - St. Albert Gazette Feb 7, 2017
    St. Albert to consider bylaw changes to allow urban beekeepingSt. Albert GazetteCouncil unanimously approved a motion directing administration to develop the policies and bylaw amendments that would be required to allow beekeeping in the city, with a budget of $15,000. Those proposed changes are expected to come back to council ...
  • Allen County program creates buzz for learning | Life | wkuherald.com - College Heights Herald Feb 6, 2017
    College Heights HeraldAllen County program creates buzz for learning | Life | wkuherald.comCollege Heights HeraldThe Allen County Bee Keeper's Association held its annual Allen County Bee School program Saturday at the Allen County Intermediate School to educate local ...'Gold standard' assessing neonicotinoids: Field bee hive studies find ...Genetic Literacy Projectall 5 news articles »
  • In The Spotlight | Sweet success: Beekeepers offer array of events ... - TribDem.com Feb 3, 2017
    TribDem.comIn The Spotlight | Sweet success: Beekeepers offer array of events ...TribDem.comWhere in the Laurel Highlands can you learn to make beeswax candles, artisanal loaves of bread and blacksmithed products? Summer Smiles Honey Farm, ...and more »
  • The effect of climate change on beekeeping in Uganda | NTV - NTV Uganda Feb 1, 2017
    NTV UgandaThe effect of climate change on beekeeping in Uganda | NTVNTV UgandaTom Okello a beekeeper, a beekeeper from Lira, here has seen the production at his apiary drop drastically.and more »
  • Beekeeper: precious insects should be protected - My BT Toowoomba - Brisbane Times Jan 29, 2017
    Brisbane TimesBeekeeper: precious insects should be protected - My BT ToowoombaBrisbane TimesGlen Tucker is the president of the Southern Beekeepers Association in Toowoomba. The club is a mixed group of amateur and commercial beekeepers.and more »


Editor Mary E. Hopper
Contributor Neil R. Carlson



© Cosma creator mehopper editor mehopper revised 7/14/2016 v.1.5

[[@ Caffeine in Plants Draws Bees: Studyhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2tlAEU5QGKoCaffeine Makes For Busy Bees, Not Productive Ones (Ed Yong, National Geographic)http://phenomena.nationalgeographic.com/2015/10/15/how-plants-manipulate-bees-with-caffeine/ ]]
  1. ^ bee. (2015). In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary (11th ed.). Retrieved June 21, 2015, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/bee
  2. ^ Bee. (2015). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved January 15, 2015, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bee
  3. ^ Apiculture. (2015). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved January 15, 2015, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beekeeping