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Cosma arrow.gif communication arrow.gif knowledge arrow.gif realm arrow.gif terrestrial arrow.gif life arrow.gif cell

cell : small usually microscopic mass of protoplasm bounded externally by a semipermeable membrane, usually including one or more nuclei and various other organelles with their products, capable alone or interacting with other cells of performing all the fundamental functions of life, and forming the smallest structural unit of living matter capable of functioning independently (cell, 2015) [1]blank.gifWebster | OneLook | Visuwords


360° Guided Tour of the Cell Animation

Journey Into a Cell

Through the Virtual Cell

'Virtual bacteria' created by scientists (Nick Collins, The Telegraph)

Virtual cells: an amazing merger of the digital and biological (Roger Highfield, Telegraph)


blank.gifmicroscope blank.gif Linnaean system blank.gifmorphologyblank.gifanatomyblank.gifphysiology blank.gifcellblank.gifgeneblank.gifevolutionblank.giffossil

blank.gifmicroorganismblank.gif virus blank.gif prokaryote (bacteria, archaea) blank.gif mitochondria, chlorophlast
blank.gifeukaryote blank.gifplant algae blank.gifnot plant or animal protist, fungi, lichen blank.gifanimal protozoa, amoeba


Cell Biology

David Bolinsky: Fantastic voyage inside a cell (TED Talk, Art)

These are links to resources organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. more...


Subject Specific Links

Cells Alive

OneLook Merriam-Webster Free Wiktionary Visuwords

UCMP Glossary, Cell Biology

Cell (Wikipedia)

Free Internet Public Library dmoz Commercial Best of the Web

"cell" DuckDuckGo WolframAlpha

Cells Alive Interactive Plant & Animal Cell Model

shop Amazon eBay gift Zazzle

History of cell biology (BiteSizeBio)

Cell Biology History Timeline

Library of Congress

WorldCat (OAIster) Library of Congress UPenn Online Books Open Library Hathi Trust

ISBNdb Google Books eBooks.com Barnes and Noble Amazon eBay Books

Interactive tutorial and quizzes about Animal, Plant and Bacteria cells

Open Education Consortium


PhysOrg.com, cell & microbiology
Science News, genes & cells
ScienceDaily.com, cell biology
NPR Archives Google News

Cell: International Journal of Biological Sciences

Google Scholar



An Introduction to Foldit

FoldIt: Solve Puzzles for Science
Computer game enabling users to contribute to scientific research about protein folding.

Foldit (Wikipedia)

EteRNA (Carnegie Mellon University, Stanford University)
Computer game that allows users to help scientists understand life at the cellular level. Play by designing RNAs, tiny molecules at the hear of every cell. If you win the weekly competition, your RNA is synthesized and scored by how well it folds.

EteRNA (Wikipedia)


    Cell Biology and Microbiology News - Biology news, Microbiology
    • Using rooster testes to learn how the body fights viruses Today 8:29 am
      Our bodies are constantly under siege by foreign invaders; viruses, bacteria and parasites that want to infiltrate our cells. A new study in the journal eLife sheds light on how germ cells - sperm and egg - protect themselves from these attackers so that they can pass accurate genetic information to the next generation.
    • Novel antibiotic resistance gene in milk Today 2:41 am
      Researchers of the University of Bern have identified a new antibiotic resistance gene in bacteria from dairy cows. This gene confers resistance to all beta-lactam antibiotics including the last generation of cephalosporins used against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. A transfer to S. aureus which is likely according to the researchers would jeopardize the use of reserve antibiotics to treat human infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria in hospitals.
    • Gut bacteria tell the brain what animals should eat Tuesday
      Neuroscientists have, for the first time, shown that gut bacteria "speak" to the brain to control food choices in animals. In a study publishing April 25 in the Open Access journal PLOS Biology, researchers identified two species of bacteria that have an impact on animal dietary decisions. The investigation was led by Carlos Ribeiro, and colleagues from the Champalimaud Centre for the Unknown in Lisbon, Portugal and Monash University, Australia.
    • Researchers make tool for understanding cellular processes more useful Tuesday
      Understanding how proteins and other molecules move around inside cells is important for understanding how cells function. Scientists use an experiment called Fluorescence Recovery after Photobleaching, or FRAP, to investigate this molecular motion, and now Brown University researchers have developed a mathematical modeling technique that makes FRAP much more useful.
    • Environmental enrichment triggers mouse wound repair response Tuesday
      Living in a stimulating environment has a wide range of health benefits in humans and has even been shown to fight cancer in mice, but the underlying mechanisms have been unclear. A study published April 25 in Cell Reports reveals that cognitive stimulation, social interactions, and physical activity increase lifespan in mice with colon cancer by triggering the body's wound repair response.

    Latest Headlines | Science News
    Cell Biology News -- ScienceDaily
    • Mushrooms get defensive Today 8:22 am
      Some mushrooms produce long-chain unsaturated carboxylic acids as their chemical defense against insect larvae. The biosynthesis of these polyenes relies on only one enzyme, as scientists have now discovered. They report the unprecedented multiple double-bond-shifting activity by the enzyme, which is representative of a yet uncharacterized phylogenetic clade of polyketide synthases.
    • Could Parkinson's disease start in the gut? Yesterday
      Parkinson's disease may start in the gut and spread to the brain via the vagus nerve, according to a study. The vagus nerve extends from the brainstem to the abdomen and controls unconscious body processes like heart rate and food digestion.
    • Wasps and wine: Paper wasps contribute to sour rot disease, a scourge of wine industry Yesterday
      New research shows that the invasive European paper wasp, Polistes dominulus, plays a role in facilitating sour rot disease in the absence of other insects.
    • A chicken-egg question: Where do baby genes come from? Yesterday
      New genes are more likely to emerge full-fledged from a genome's 'junk' DNA than many scientists would have expected, according to new research by evolutionary biologists.
    • Animal testing essential to medical progress but protocols could be improved Yesterday
      The use of animals in biomedical research has long been the focus of campaigns by animal rights activists. Two leading scientists give their expert view of the importance of animal testing to medical progress and present ways it could be further improved to yield more useful clinical results.


    Editor Mary E. Hopper
    Contributor Neil R. Carlson

    © Cosma creator mehopper editor mehopper revised 8/4/2016 v.1.5

    1. ^ cell. (2015). In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary (11th ed.). Retrieved June 21, 2015, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/cell