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Cosma arrow.gif communication arrow.gif knowledge arrow.gif realm arrow.gif terrestrial arrow.gif life arrow.gif cell

cell : small usually microscopic mass of protoplasm bounded externally by a semipermeable membrane, usually including one or more nuclei and various other organelles with their products, capable alone or interacting with other cells of performing all the fundamental functions of life, and forming the smallest structural unit of living matter capable of functioning independently (cell, 2015) [1]blank.gifWebster | OneLook | Visuwords


360° Guided Tour of the Cell Animation

Journey Into a Cell

Through the Virtual Cell

'Virtual bacteria' created by scientists (Nick Collins, The Telegraph)

Virtual cells: an amazing merger of the digital and biological (Roger Highfield, Telegraph)


blank.gifmicroscope blank.gif Linnaean system blank.gifmorphologyblank.gifanatomyblank.gifphysiology blank.gifcellblank.gifgeneblank.gifevolutionblank.giffossil

blank.gifmicroorganismblank.gif virus blank.gif prokaryote (bacteria, archaea) blank.gif mitochondria, chlorophlast
blank.gifeukaryote blank.gifplant algae blank.gifnot plant or animal protist, fungi, lichen blank.gifanimal protozoa, amoeba


Cell Biology

David Bolinsky: Fantastic voyage inside a cell (TED Talk, Art)

These are links to resources organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. more...


Subject Specific Links

Cells Alive

OneLook Merriam-Webster Free Wiktionary Visuwords

UCMP Glossary, Cell Biology

Cell (Wikipedia)

Free Internet Public Library dmoz Commercial Best of the Web

"cell" DuckDuckGo WolframAlpha

Cells Alive Interactive Plant & Animal Cell Model

shop Amazon eBay gift Zazzle

History of cell biology (BiteSizeBio)

Cell Biology History Timeline

Library of Congress

WorldCat (OAIster) Library of Congress UPenn Online Books Open Library Hathi Trust

ISBNdb Google Books eBooks.com Barnes and Noble Amazon eBay Books

Interactive tutorial and quizzes about Animal, Plant and Bacteria cells

Open Education Consortium


PhysOrg.com, cell & microbiology
Science News, genes & cells
ScienceDaily.com, cell biology
NPR Archives Google News

Cell: International Journal of Biological Sciences

Google Scholar



An Introduction to Foldit

FoldIt: Solve Puzzles for Science
Computer game enabling users to contribute to scientific research about protein folding.

Foldit (Wikipedia)

EteRNA (Carnegie Mellon University, Stanford University)
Computer game that allows users to help scientists understand life at the cellular level. Play by designing RNAs, tiny molecules at the hear of every cell. If you win the weekly competition, your RNA is synthesized and scored by how well it folds.

EteRNA (Wikipedia)


    Cell Biology and Microbiology News - Biology news, Microbiology
    • Biologists find weird cave life that may be 50,000 years old Saturday
      In a Mexican cave system so beautiful and hot that it is called both Fairyland and hell, scientists have discovered life trapped in crystals that could be 50,000 years old.
    • Researchers are first to see DNA 'blink' Friday
      Many of the secrets of cancer and other diseases lie in the cell's nucleus. But getting way down to that level—to see and investigate the important genetic material housed there—requires creative thinking and extremely powerful imaging techniques.
    • What happens to gene transcription during DNA damage? Friday
      It's well known that when the DNA in a cell is damaged, the cell responds by activating specific genes that help defend the integrity of its genome. But less well studied is the fact that the cell actually shuts down the vast majority of its other genes.
    • In a possible step forward for gene therapy, researchers made mice glow like fireflies Feb 16, 2017
      Timothy Blake, a postdoctoral fellow in the Waymouth lab, was hard at work on a fantastical interdisciplinary experiment. He and his fellow researchers were refining compounds that would carry instructions for assembling the protein that makes fireflies light up and deliver them into the cells of an anesthetized mouse. If their technique worked, the mouse would glow in the dark.
    • Rainbow dyes add greater precision to fight against 'superbugs' Feb 16, 2017
      A study reported Feb. 17 in the journal Science led by researchers at Indiana University and Harvard University is the first to reveal in extreme detail the operation of the biochemical clockwork that drives cellular division in bacteria.

    Latest Headlines | Science News
    Cell Biology News -- ScienceDaily
    • Egg-free surrogate chickens produced in bid to save rare breeds Friday
      Hens that do not produce their own chicks have been developed for use as surrogates to lay eggs from rare breeds. The advance -- using gene-editing techniques -- could help to boost breeding of endangered birds, as well as improving production of commercial hens, researchers say.
    • From mice, clues to microbiome's influence on metabolic disease Friday
      The community of microorganisms that resides in the gut, known as the microbiome, has been shown to work in tandem with the genes of a host organism to regulate insulin secretion, a key variable in the onset of the metabolic disease diabetes, new research has found.
    • Gene editing can complement traditional food-animal improvements Friday
      Animal scientist say that gene editing -- following in the footsteps of traditional breeding -- has tremendous potential to boost the sustainability of livestock production, while also enhancing food-animal health and welfare.
    • Powerful optical imaging technology catches DNA naturally fluorescing Friday
      Biomedical engineers have developed imaging technology that is the first to see DNA 'blink,' or fluoresce. The tool enables researchers to study individual biomolecules (DNA, chromatin, proteins) as well as important global patterns of gene expression, which could yield insights into cancer.
    • In-mouse catalysis Friday
      A gold catalyst can be delivered to a target organ in a higher organism where it performs a chemical transformation visualized by bioimaging. This intriguing approach could make organometallic catalysis applicable for therapy or diagnostics.


    Editor Mary E. Hopper
    Contributor Neil R. Carlson

    © Cosma creator mehopper editor mehopper revised 8/4/2016 v.1.5

    1. ^ cell. (2015). In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary (11th ed.). Retrieved June 21, 2015, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/cell