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Cosma arrow.gif communication
communication : a process by which information is exchanged between individuals through a common system of symbols, signs, or behavior (Communication, 2015) [1] Webster Oxford Free OneLook Word Reference Urban Visuwords
Communication is the activity of conveying meaningful information. Communication requires a sender, a message, and an intended recipient, although the receiver need not be present or aware of the sender's intent to communicate at the time of communication; thus communication can occur across vast distances in time and space. Communication requires that the communicating parties share an area of communicative commonality. The communication process is complete once the receiver has understood the sender. (Communication, 2015) [2] blank.gif Wikipedia
"The qualities that make humans beings unique are the ability to use symbols and the ability to use tools, so it is not at all surprising that the discipline that concerns itself with the use of symbols as a tool is one that can subsume all other disciplines and encompass the entirety of humanity’s accomplishments." M. E. Hopper


Cosma provides access to extensive knowledge resources organized around the elements of a communication system. Begin by clicking these labels to learn more about those elements.



Communication, transportation, information technology and commerce were inextricably intertwined since the beginning of human history until quite recently, and they still remain closely related today.
"The success of the first electronic telegraph line in 1844 opened an era of modern communication in America. Before the telegraph there existed no separation between transportation and communication. Information traveled only as fast as the messenger who carried it." Media and the American Mind (Czitrom, D. J., 1982)
This reality was even codified in the Dewey Decimal library classification system: 380 Commerce, communications, transportation

See also commerce | transportation | information technology | communications | telecommunication


Communication Theory

Communication Presentation
Communication Models (Steve Kaminski)


Real Life (RL)

Chinese Whispers aka Telephone Game: Kid

Chinese Whispers aka Telephone Game: Teen

Chinese Whispers aka Telephone Game: Adult

Play the Telephone Game (WikiHow)
Chinese Whispers (Wikipedia)


These are links to resources organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. more...



Sources of Information - Reference Resources

Note: Your favorite library probably has access to Ex Libris Primo or a similar system.

Communication Resources Page (Cosma, You are here!)
Kurylo's Communication Links Index
Communication Studies: Reference Resources (University of Michigan Library)

A Dictionary of Media and Communication (Daniel Chandler and Rod Munday, Oxford University Press)

ASIS thesaurus of information science and librarianship (Milstead, J. L. (Ed.), 1994) [3]
Merriam-Webster Roget's II (Thesaurus.com) Visuwords

Glossary of communication (Pertti Hurme, University of Jyväskylä)

The international encyclopedia of communication (International Communication Association)
Encyclopedia of communication and information
Britannica Wikipedia

Introduction to Communication Studies (John Fiske)

Outline of Communication (Mary E. Hopper, Cosma)
Outline of Communication (Wikipedia)

Free Internet Public Library DMOZ

WolframAlpha DuckDuckGo

Communication studies is an academic field that deals with processes of communication, commonly defined as the sharing of symbols over distances in space and time. Hence, communication studies encompasses a wide range of topics and contexts ranging from face-to-face conversation to speeches to mass media outlets such as television broadcasting. Communication studies, as a discipline, is also often interested in how audiences interpret information and the political, cultural, economic, and social dimensions of speech and language in context. (Communication studies, 2016) [4] Wikipedia

Communication Studies: A Resource for Students, Professors, and Professionals (Communication Studies.com)
Communication Studies (Wikipedia)
Human communication is concerned with the making of meaning and the exchange of understanding. One model of communication considers it from the perspective of transmitting information from one person to another. In fact, many scholars of communication take this as a working definition, and use Lasswell's maxim, "who says what to whom in which channel with what effect," as a means of circumscribing the field of communication theory. (Communication theory, 2016) [5] Wikipedia

KP's Speech Class - Communication Model


Communication Hierarchy
The "DIKW Hierarchy", also known variously as the "Wisdom Hierarchy", the "Knowledge Hierarchy", the "Information Hierarchy", and the "Knowledge Pyramid", refers loosely to a class of models for representing purported structural and/or functional relationships between data, information, knowledge, and wisdom. (DIKW, 2016) [6] Wikipedia
Most writers about the hierarchy refer to this passage from T. S. Eliot's The Rock (1934).
Where is the Life we have lost in living?
Where is the wisdom we have lost in knowledge?
Where is the knowledge we have lost in information?
--T.S. Eliot, The Rock (1934) [7]

It was Russell Ackoff who popularized the use of the hierarchy to categorize the content of communication.

Data, Information, Knowledge, and Wisdom (Gene Bellinger, Durval Castro and Anthony Mills, Systems Thinking.org)
From data to wisdom (Ackoff, 1989) [8]
The wisdom of the world: Messages for the new millennium. (Ackoff, 1999) [9]
On passing through 80 (Ackoff, 1999) [10]

See also content data | information | knowledge | wisdom


Communication Innovation

Innovations Report

Communication sciences refers to the schools of scientific research of human communication. This perspective follows the logical positivist tradition of inquiry; most modern communication science falls into a tradition of post-positivism. Thus, communication scientists believe that there is an objective and independent reality that can be accessed through the method of scientific enquiry. Research conducted under this tradition is empirically based but can be both quantitative or qualitative. (Communication sciences, 2016) [11] Wikipedia

Introduction to Communication Science


Information and communications technology or information and communication technology, usually called ICT, is often used as an extended synonym for information technology (IT), but is usually a more general term that stresses the role of unified communications and the integration of telecommunications (telephone lines and wireless signals), intelligent building management systems and audio-visual systems in modern information technology. ICT consists of all technical means used to handle information and aid communication, including computer and network hardware, communication middleware as well as necessary software. In other words, ICT consists of IT as well as telephony, broadcast media, all types of audio and video processing and transmission and network based control and monitoring functions. (Information and communications technology, 2016) [12] Wikipedia

See also media and information technology

Hoover's Industry


Shop Amazon eBay Gift Zazzle


History of communication

Communication through the Ages Infographic (Atlassian)
The History of Communication through the Ages (Tim Lambert)
History of Communication (History World)
History of Communication (Wikipedia)

Timeline of Communication (History World)
History of Communication Timeline (About.com)
Timeline of Communication History (Brownville School District)

Smithsonian National Museum of American History, Communication
Charles Babbage Institute (CBI)
Museum of Broadcast Communications
Southwest Museum of Engineering, Communications and Computation
Transportation and Communication Maps (Library of Congress)
Caring for antique communication devices: phonographs, radios, etc. (Smithsonian)

MIT Communications Forum
Internet Archive

Finding aid
Library of Congress Finding Aids

Annenberg School for Communication Library (University of Pennsylvania)

Catalog (LCSH)
WorldCat (OAIster) Library of Congress UPenn Online Books Open Library World Digital Library (UNESCO & Library of Congress) Hathi Trust

Communication bibliography (Oxford Bibliographies)

Worlds of reference: Lexicography, learning and language from the clay tablet to the computer (McArthur, 1986) [13]
Information technology and civilization (Inose & Pierce, 1984) [14]
Making connections: Communication through the ages (Meadow, 2002) [15]
Ink into bits: A web of converging media (Meadow, 1998) [16]
ISBNdb Google Books


The Participation Culture : Pascal Finette


J.D. Schramm: How to Communicate with Your Audience

K-12 Speaking, Listening, and Media Literacy Standards and Competency Statements (National Communication Association)

K-12 Speaking, Listening, and Media Literacy Standards and Competency Statements (National Communication Association)

Knowledge systems 101: From Alexandria to Hitchhiker's Guide (Hopper, 2000) [17]
Open Education Consortium
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources

Survey of Communication Study (Laura K. Hahn and Scott T. Paynton, Professor, Humboldt State University)
Communication Textbook (Boundless.com)


The Spirit of Community: A need to commune (Maira Hassan, TEDxQMUL)

Quotations Page




International Communication Association
International Association for Media and Communication Research
World Communication Association
National Communication Association
American Communication Association

International Conference on Media & Communication Studies
Conference Alerts Worldwide (Conal)

NPR Archives
Google News

Journal of communication (Wiley)
Studies in Communication Sciences (Elsevier)

Communication Abstracts (EBSCOhost)

Communication and Mass Media Complete
Google Scholar


Ladder of Citizen Participation

Ladder of Citizen Participation (Sherry Arnstein)


Freedom of Expression (American Civil Liberties Union)
Freedom of Expression (Freedom House)


A guide to effective communication

Should we call it expression or communication? (Paul Ekman)


The Postmmodernism Generator: Communications from Elsewhere
Contact Project: Experiment in deciphering a simulated message from another planet (Lunar Institute of Technology)


Communication: Sender/Receiver, Abbott & Costello Comedy Routine

Communications-What could possibly go wrong?

Humor Improves Communication (Paul McGhee, LaughterRemedy.com)
Using Humor (David Straker, Changing Minds)

Communication arts encompasses the art of human communication in an ever-changing technological society. Communication arts broadly includes studies and professions that deal with graphic and visual design such as graphic design, graphic arts, art direction, corporate design and other areas. People who work in communication arts include photographers, illustrators, typographers and graphic designers. Fields in communication arts also include journalism, screenwriting, public speaking, digital video production, feature writing and even film and television studies. Some academic programs have course tracks strictly devoted to advertising or public relations, as well as electronic media. This field has its own professional publications including Communication Arts, a journal that caters to those in the communications fields, whether they work with print or online. (Communication arts, 2016) [18] Ask.com
Communication Arts (Official Site)
Communication Arts (Wikipedia)


OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form

Movie Getty Video IMDb Rotten Tomatoes
Image Getty Images Google Images
Song Getty Music Discogs SongLyrics


Science Of Persuasion


A Brief History of Intelligence (and Communication)

The Future of Communication


Coming back soon!


Cosma 3D Communication Center
Knowledge Kingdom, Aether Region

Visit this peaceful heavenly location and wander around the square to learn about the elements of communication. It is a beautiful space that, like other knowledge places, also features fun objects that are free to copy (freebies) and "magic windows" that open key pages on this site. Step up to the bar and "sip" the drinks to find a master, but hidden, navigation system that allows you to quickly access all of the key locations in Knowledge Paradise.

Journal of Communication
  • Visual Expressions of Black Identity: African American and African Museum Websites by Melissa A. Johnson, Keon M. Pettiway May 15, 2017
    This qualitative and quantitative content analysis examines 46 African and African American museum websites. Merelman's cultural projection concept serves as a foundation to explain the societal importance of Black cultural expression. The analysis reviews how the African- and African American-centric organizations communicate Black and organizational identities on their digital platforms. Described are images, sound, and visual dynamism. The findings add to the literature on counterstereotyp...
  • Social Media and Citizen Participation in “Official” and “Unofficial” Electoral Promotion: A Structural Analysis of the 2016 Bernie Sanders Digital Campaign by Joel Penney May 13, 2017
    Drawing on interviews with leaders of the effort to promote the 2016 Bernie Sanders U.S. presidential candidacy on social media, this study contrasts the structure and content of various organizational networks to map the hybrid ecosystem of the contemporary digital campaign. While the “official” Sanders organization built applications to transform supporters into a tightly controlled distribution network for its social media messaging, this was complemented by “unofficial” grassroots network...
  • A Meta-Analysis of Uncertainty and Information Management in Illness Contexts by Kai Kuang, Steven R. Wilson May 11, 2017
    This study meta-analyzes 32 studies that examined uncertainty's effects on anxiety and information management within a variety of illness contexts (e.g., cancer, sexually transmitted disease, heart disease). Results indicate that the direction and magnitude of uncertainty's effects vary for different information management strategies. Illness uncertainty is strongly, positively associated with anxiety and avoidance. In contrast, the average effect of uncertainty on information seeking is nons...
  • Television and the Cultivation of Authoritarianism: A Return Visit From an Unexpected Friend by Michael Morgan, James Shanahan May 8, 2017
    The 2016 Presidential election brought a surprise: the rise of Donald Trump as a viable candidate for the Republican nomination. What started as a seeming publicity stunt morphed into something more. Trump raised fears of authoritarianism—and even fascism—that were thought to be mostly confined to other countries. This study uses a national sample to examine television viewing's relationship to authoritarian values. We find that heavy viewers of television are more likely to be authoritarian,...
  • Protest Paradigm in Multimedia: Social Media Sharing of Coverage About the Crime of Ayotzinapa, Mexico by Summer Harlow, Ramón Salaverría, Danielle K. Kilgo, Víctor García-Perdomo Apr 28, 2017
    In 2014 protests erupted around the world after 43 college students from Ayotzinapa, Mexico, were kidnapped and massacred. This bilingual, cross-national content analysis explores the relationship between multimedia features in stories about the Ayotzinapa protests and how social media users liked, shared, and commented on that coverage. This study furthers our understanding of the protest paradigm in a digital context, and sheds light on differences in mainstream, alternative, and online med...

© Cosma (v.1.5) creator mehopper revised 5/28/2016

LOC Subclass HE – (Transportation and) communications
Dewey Decimal classes
380 Commerce, communications, & transportation
380 Commerce, communications, transportation
381 Commerce (Trade)
382 International commerce (Foreign trade)
383 Postal communication
384 Communications

  1. ^ Communication. (2015). In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary (11th ed.). Retrieved January 5, 2015, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/communication
  2. ^ Communication. (2015). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved January 5, 2015, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/communication
  3. ^ Milstead, J. L. (Ed.). (1994). ASIS thesaurus of information science and librarianship. Medford, NJ : Published for the American Society for Information Science by Learned Information. Retrieved July 11, 2011, from http://www.asis.org/Publications/bookstore/thes.html
  4. ^ Communication studies. (2016). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved January 15, 2016, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Communication_studies
  5. ^ Communication theory. (2016). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved April 26, 2016, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Communication_theory
  6. ^ DIKW. (2016). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved April 26, 2016, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DIKW
  7. ^ Eliot, T. S. (1934) The rock. New York: Faber. Retrieved April 26, 2016, from http://www.wisdomportal.com/Technology/TSEliot-TheRock.html
  8. ^ Ackoff, R. L. (1989). From data to wisdom, Journal of Applies Systems Analysis, 16, 3-9. Retrieved July 11, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russell_Ackoff
  9. ^ Lloyd, B. (2000, May-June). The wisdom of the world: Messages for the new millennium. The Futurist, 34, 42-46. Retrieved July 11, 2011, from http://www.wisdompage.com/LloydWisdomQuotesIntro.html
  10. ^ Ackoff, R.L. (1999). On passing through 80. Systemic practice and action research, 12(4), 425-430. Retrieved January 15, 2015, from http://www.springerlink.com/content/h26r14780320240h/
  11. ^ Communication sciences. (2016). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved April 26, 2016, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Communication_sciences
  12. ^ Information and communications technology. (2016). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved April 26, 2016, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information_and_communications_technology
  13. ^ McArthur, T., (1986). Worlds of reference: Lexicography, learning and language from the clay tablet to the computer. New York: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved from http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=ti%3Aworlds+of+reference&qt=results_page
  14. ^ Inose, H. & Pierce, J. R. (1984). Information technology and civilization. New York: W.H. Freeman & Company. Retrieved July 11, 2011, from http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=ti%3AInformation+Technology+Civilization&qt=results_page
  15. ^ Meadow, C. T. (2002). Making connections: Communication through the ages. Lanham, MD : Scarecrow Press. Retrieved July 11, 2011, from http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=ti%3Amaking+connections+communication+through+ages&qt=results_page
  16. ^ Meadow, C. T. (1998). Ink into bits: A web of converging media. Lanham, MD : Scarecrow Press. Retrieved July 11, 2011, from http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=ti%3AInk+into+bits+web+converging+media&qt=results_page
  17. ^ Hopper, M. E. (2000, January). Knowledge systems 101: From Alexandria to Hitchhiker's Guide [Short course, 4 sessions, 2-hours each]. Independent Activity Period (IAP), Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA. Retrieved from http://world.std.com/~mehopper/R/Hopper_00-KS101-IAP.html
  18. ^ Communication arts. (2016). In Ask.com. Retrieved April 26, 2016, from http://www.ask.com/education/communication-arts-9b25b1b27a1f87a3