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dictionary : a reference source in print or electronic form containing words usually alphabetically arranged along with information about their forms, pronunciations, functions, etymologies, meanings, and syntactical and idiomatic uses (dictionary, 2015) [1] Webster Oxford Free OneLook Word Reference Urban Visuwords

lexicon : a book containing an alphabetical arrangement of the words in a language and their definitions (lexicon, 2015) [2] Webster Oxford Free OneLook Word Reference Urban Visuwords

Dictionary, also called a lexicon, wordbook, or vocabulary, is a collection of words in one or more specific languages, often listed alphabetically, with usage information, definitions, etymologies, phonetics, pronunciations, and other information; or a book of words in one language with their equivalents in another, also known as a lexicon. (Dictionary, 2015) [3] Wikipedia

Lexicography focuses on the design, compilation, use and evaluation of general dictionaries, i.e. dictionaries that provide a description of the language in general use. Such a dictionary is usually called a general dictionary or LGP dictionary (Language for General Purpose). Specialized lexicography focuses on the design, compilation, use and evaluation of specialized dictionaries, i.e. dictionaries that are devoted to a (relatively restricted) set of linguistic and factual elements of one or more specialist subject fields, e.g. legal lexicography. (Lexicography, 2015) [4] Wikipedia

Related

Subjects

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Subheadings

referenceblank.gif resource | dictionary | encyclopedia arrow.gif introduction | synopsis arrow.gif handbook | manual arrow.gif guide | directory | search

See also thesaurus | glossary | concordance arrow.gif language | language arts


Spotlight


Merriam-Webster Announces Word Of The Year


2016 Word of the Year: Behind the Scenes


The dictionary folk at Merriam-Webster sum up 2016: surreal (Leanne Italie, Boston.com)

How do new words get added to Oxford Dictionaries?


[[@https://www.youtube.com/user/OxfordDictionaries" target="_blank">Oxford Dictionaries (YouTube Channel)]]

Word of the Year 2016 - Oxford Dictionaries


Word of the year (Wikipedia)

Resources


These are links to resources organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. more...

Type

Subject Specific Links
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dictionary

Look up the word "dictionary" in these dictionaries...
Merriam-Webster Compact Oxford English Free OneLook Word Reference Urban
thesaurus

Roget's Thesaurus Merriam-Webster Visuwords
encyclopedia

Britannica Wikipedia (Category)
theory

Generative Lexicon Theory & Computational Lexicon (Pustejovsky & Johnston)
guide

Dictionary Guides (Dummies.com)
directory

Specific Internet Library for Librarians Internet Public Library Library Spot RefDesk
General encyclopaedic works (BUBL LINK) Dictionaries and encyclopaedias (BUBL LINK) Dictionaries (BUBL LINK)
WWW Virtual Library DMOZ Open directory
search

WolframAlpha DuckDuckGo
innovation.jpg


science

Lexicology and lexicography Lexicology (Wikipedia)
application

What is Leicography? (WiseGeek)
entrepreneurship

Indiegogo
product

shop Amazon eBay gift Zazzle
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history

Dictionaries & Meanings (British Library
biography

Lexicographers, Wikipedia
archive

Internet Archive
finding aid

Library of Congress Finding Aids
library

WorldCat (OAIster) Library of Congress
UPenn Online Books Open Library
World Digital Library (UNESCO & Library of Congress) Hathi Trust
lc

PE Dictionaries UPenn OnlineBooks
bibliography

International Bibliography of Lexicography (Euralex)
book

ISBNdb Google Books
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resource

Michael Quinion's World Wide Words|
education

Merriam-Webster's Word Central for Kids (Merriam-Webster)
Wordsmyth's Educational Dictionary
course

Generative Lexicon Theory & Computational Lexicon (Pustejovsky & Johnston)
Open Education Consortium OER Commons: Open Educational Resources
occupation

What does a Lexicographer do?
Occupational Outlook Handbook
event

Conference Alerts Worldwide (Conal) Meetup.com
quotation

Quotations Page Bartlett’s
list

Ranker
trivia

Quiz on Dictionaries (Fun Trivia)
forum

Reddit
blog

WordPress
news

NPR Archives Google News
serial

International Journal of Lexicography
article

Google Scholar
organization

Dictionary Society of North America International Society for Historical Lexicography and Lexicology (ISHLL)
government

USA.gov
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toy

Dictionary Toys & Games, Amazon
game

Word Games (Ask Oxford)
hobby

Fun & Games (Dictionary.com) Crosswords (Cosma) Scrabble (Cosma)
poem

OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form
belief

Dream Interpretation Dictionaries (Psychologist World)

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History


Oxford English Dictionary

English Dictionaries (Oxford English Dictionary)
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Empire of words: The reign of the O.E.D. (John Willinsky)
Oxford English Dictionary (Wikipedia)

Oxford English Dictionary (OED)
Compact Oxford English Dictionary (OED)
OED Word Stories (OED)

Samuel Johnson

The Dictionary Man (BBC)
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blank.gif Defining the English Language
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Samuel Johnson Sound Byte Page (Samuel Johnson.com)
Samuel Johnson (Wikipedia)

The Dictionary of the English Language: Reader's Guide (Rutgers)
Samuel Johnson and His Dictionary: Reader's Guide (John's Hopkins) [pdf]
A Dictionary of the English Language (Octavo)
A Dictionary of the English Language (Wikipedia)
Absurd Samuel Johnson (YouTube Channel)

15,000-Year-Old Words We Still Use (Discovery News)

Acronym


Acronym is a word or name formed as an abbreviation from the initial components in a phrase or a word, usually individual letters (as in NATO or laser) and sometimes syllables (as in Benelux). There is no universal standardization of the various names for such abbreviations and of their orthographic styling. In English and most other languages, such abbreviations historically had limited use, but they became much more common in the 20th century. Acronyms are a type of word formation process, and they are viewed as a subtype of blending. (Acronym, 2016) [5] Wikipedia
Acronym Finder
The Acronym Server
Your Dictionary: Abbreviations & Acronyms
FreeDictionary: Acronyms

Fun
The Acronym Liar: Randomized and completely false acronyms at the touch of a button (The Surrealist)

Reverse

Reverse dictionary is a dictionary organized in a non-standard order (usually referring to being in a so-called "reverse" order) that provides the user with information that would be difficult to obtain from a traditionally alphabetized dictionary. There are two principal types of reverse dictionaries: reverse word dictionaries, and reverse concept dictionaries (conceptual dictionary). (Reverse dictionary, 2016) [6] Wikipedia

Use A Definition To Find The Word With OneLook’s Reverse Dictionary (Saikat Basu, Make use of)
Onelook Reverse dictionary
Wordsmyth Reverse Lookup

Rhyming


Rhyming Dictionary Freestyle, Linguistic Wordplay Creativity Exercises Demonstration


Online Rhyming Dictionaries


WikiRhyer
RhymeZone (Datamuse)

Newest


New Hip Words Land in Oxford Dictionary


Oxford Dictionary adds new words


Oxford Dictionaries Adds ‘Fat-Shame,’ ‘Butthurt’ and ‘Redditor’ (Katy Steinmetz, Time)
Can You Use That In A Sentence? Dictionary Adds New Words (Laura Wagner, NPR)

Future


Erin McKean: Redefining the dictionary


Fun


C is for Contrafibularity - Blackadder (BBC)


My Fair Lady "Why Can't the English Learn to Speak"


Luciferous Logolepsy
Alpha Dictionary

1811 Dictionary of Vulgar Tongue by Captain Grose (Gutenberg) Francis Grose (Wikipedia)
The Devil's Dictionary (Official Site) The Devil's Dictionary (Wikipedia)

Grandiloquent Dictionary (Chris Bird)
Collecting and defining the most rare, obscure, and pretentious words in the English language

F-bomb Tops Annual New Words List


F-bomb makes it into mainstream dictionary (Leanne Italie, Associated Press)

SMS Dictionary: Sms, txt and email acronyms, abbreviations and smiles (Drop Web Solutions 2016Drop Web Solutions)
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More...

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Recent Journal Issues

© Cosma (v.1.5) creator mehopper revised 12/20/2016


LOC Subclass AG – Dictionaries and other general reference works (Class A General Works)
Dewey 403 Dictionaries
413 Dictionaries Dictionary
413, P361 Polyglot glossaries, phrase books, etc.
413, P361 Dictionaries, Polyglot
413, P761-769 Indo-European languages--Lexicography
413, PB331 Dictionaries, Polyglot
413.028, P501 Indo-European philology—Periodicals





  1. ^ dictionary. 2015. In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved January 5, 2015, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/dictionary
  2. ^ lexicon. 2015. In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved January 5, 2015, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/lexicon
  3. ^ Dictionary. (2015). In Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved January 5, 2015, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dictionary
  4. ^ Lexicography. (2015). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved January 5, 2015, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lexicography
  5. ^ Acronym. (2016). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved January 6, 2016, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acronym
  6. ^ Reverse dictionary. (2016). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved January 6, 2016, fromhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reverse_dictionary