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encyclopedia : a work that contains information on all branches of knowledge or treats comprehensively a particular branch of knowledge usually in articles arranged alphabetically often by subject (Encyclopedia, 2015) [1] Webster Oxford Free OneLook Word Reference Urban Visuwords
Encyclopedia (also spelled encyclopaedia or encyclopædia) is a type of reference work, a compendium holding a summary of information from either all branches of knowledge or a particular branch of knowledge. Encyclopedias are divided into articles or entries, which are usually accessed alphabetically by article name. Encyclopedia entries are longer and more detailed than those in most dictionaries. Generally speaking, unlike dictionary entries, which focus on linguistic information about words, encyclopedia articles focus on factual information to cover the thing or concept for which the article name stands. (Encyclopedia, 2015) [2] Wikipedia

general blank.gif subject | discipline blank.gif outline | classification arrow.gif portal | reference
blank.gif theory | philosophy (metaphysics | logic | epistemology | ethics | aesthetics) blank.gif blank.gif
blank.gif model | system (cycle | structure | growth | complexity | control | disturbance | entropy | chaos) blank.gif
blank.gif environment | ecology blank.gif administration | management blank.gif enterprise | project

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Roget's Thesaurus Merriam-Webster Visuwords

Look up the word "encyclopedia" in encyclopedias...
Britannica Columbia (Infoplease) Wikipedia (Category)

How to use an Encyclopedia

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Dictionaries and encyclopaedias (BUBL LINK)
DMOZ Open directory

WolframAlpha DuckDuckGo


Writing an Encyclopedia Entry


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History of Encyclopedias (Britannica) List of Historical Encyclopedias (Wikipedia)

Internet Archive
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UPenn Online Books Open Library
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Quotations Page


Quiz on encyclopedias (Fun Trivia)


NPR Archives Google News

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Amazon Toys

OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form


Encyclopédie (Denis Diderot, Jean le Rond d'Alembert and the "Encyclopedists")

Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers (Encyclopaedia, or a Systematic Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Crafts) was a general encyclopedia published in France between 1751 and 1772, with later supplements, revised editions, and translations. It had many writers, known as the Encyclopédistes. It was edited by Denis Diderot and, until 1759, co-edited by Jean le Rond d'Alembert. The Encyclopédie is most famous for representing the thought of the Enlightenment. According to Denis Diderot in the article "Encyclopédie", the aim was "to change the way people think." He and the other contributors advocated for the secularization of learning away from the Jesuits. Diderot wanted to incorporate all of the world's knowledge into the Encyclopédie and hoped that the text could disseminate all this information to the public and future generations. It was also the first encyclopedia to include contributions from many named contributors, and it was the first general encyclopedia to describe the mechanical arts. (Encyclopédie, 2016) [3] Wikipedia

The controversial origins of the Encyclopedia - Addison Anderson

The Encyclopedia of Diderot & d'Alembert Collaborative Translation Project (U. Michigan)
English translation of the articles from the Encyclop?die edited by Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d'Alembert in the 18th century.
Encyclopédie (Wikipedia)

Encyclopedists (Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
Encyclopédistes (Wikipedia)
Encyclopedists, Category (Wikipedia)


Encyclopædia Britannica (Colin Macfarquhar, Andrew Bell, Mortimer J. Adler et. al.)
Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia. It is written and continuously updated by about 100 full-time editors and more than 4,400 contributors. It is regarded as one of the most scholarly of English language encyclopaedias. The Britannica is the oldest English-language encyclopaedia still being produced. It was first published between 1768 and 1771 in Edinburgh, Scotland as three volumes. The encyclopaedia grew in size; the second edition was 10 volumes, and by its fourth edition (1801–1809) it had expanded to 20 volumes. Throughout history, the Britannica has had two aims: to be an excellent reference book and to provide educational material. In 1974, the 15th edition adopted a third goal: to systematise all human knowledge. (Encyclopædia Britannica, 2015) [4]blank.gif Wikipedia
Encyclopaedia Britannica - 10 Historical Facts About Print Editions

History of Encyclopedias, Britannica

Early Editions
In the first era (1st–6th editions, 1768–1826), the Britannica was managed and published by its founders, Colin Macfarquhar and Andrew Bell, by Archibald Constable, and by others. The Britannica was first published between 1768 and 1771 in Edinburgh as the Encyclopædia Britannica, or, A Dictionary of Arts and Sciences, compiled upon a New Plan. (Encyclopædia Britannica, 2015) [5]blank.gif Wikipedia
11th Edition
The rising stature of Britannica helped recruit eminent contributors, and the 9th edition (1875–1889) and the 11th edition (1911) are landmark encyclopaedias for scholarship and literary style. Beginning with the 11th edition, the Britannica shortened and simplified articles to broaden its appeal in the North American market. In 1933, the Britannica became the first encyclopaedia to adopt "continuous revision", in which the encyclopaedia is continually reprinted and every article updated on a schedule. (Encyclopædia Britannica, 2015) [6]blank.gif Wikipedia
Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication. This edition of the encyclopedia is now in the public domain, but the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic. Some articles have special value and interest to modern scholars as cultural artifacts of the 19th and early 20th centuries. (Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, 2015) [7]blank.gif Wikipedia
The magic of Encyclopedia Britannica's 11th edition (Nate Pedersen, The Guardian)
Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, 1911 (Full Text)
Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (Wikipedia)
Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (Project Gutenberg)

15th Edition
Britannica introduced its 15th edition under Mortimer J. Adler (member of the Board of Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica since its inception in 1949, and its chair from 1974; director of editorial planning for the 15th edition of Britannica from 1965), the Britannica sought not only to be a good reference work and educational tool but to systematise all human knowledge. The official title of the 15th edition is the New Encyclopædia Britannica, although it has also been promoted as Britannica.

The 15th edition has a three-part structure: a 10-volume Micropædia of short articles (generally fewer than 750 words), a 19-volume Macropædia of long articles (two to 310 pages) and a single Propædia volume to give a hierarchical outline of knowledge. The Micropædia is meant for quick fact-checking and as a guide to the Macropædia; readers are advised to study the Propædia outline to understand a subject's context and to find more detailed articles. The size of the Britannica has remained roughly constant over 70 years, with about 40 million words on half a million topics. Although publication has been based in the United States since 1901, the Britannica has largely maintained British spelling. (Encyclopædia Britannica, 2015) [8]blank.gif Wikipedia

Micropædia (Wikipedia)
Macropædia (Wikipedia)

Propaedeutics or propedeutics is a historical term for an introductory course into a discipline: art, science, etc. Etymology: pro- + Greek: paideutikós, "pertaining to teaching". Propaedeutics may be defined as knowledge necessary for learning, but not for proficiency. (Propaedeutics, 2015) [9]blank.gif Wikipedia
Propaedeutics is a term used by the Germans to indicate the knowledge which is necessary or useful for understanding or practicing an art or science, or which unfolds its nature and extent, and the method of learning it. It is applied, therefore, not only to special introductions to particular branches of study, but also to auxiliary sciences, logic, philology, etc., and the encyclopaedic views of particular branches of science which facilitate an insight into the relations of the parts. Such a survey can he presented only by one who has studied a science in all its ramifications. The term propaedeutics is often, of course, merely relative : thus philology belongs to the propaedeutics of history, while it is itself the main study of a certain class of scholars. The term, however, in its common use, is generally restricted to the body of knowledge, and of rules necessary for the study of some particular science — rules which originate in the application of the general laws of science or art to a particular department. Thus we find in the catalogues of lectures to be delivered in German universities medical propaedeutics, &c., enumerated. (Encyclopaedia Americana, 1851, p. 373. ) [10]blank.gif
Propædia is the one volume first of three parts of the 15th edition of Encyclopædia Britannica, the other two being the 12-volume Micropædia and the 17-volume Macropædia. The Propædia is intended as a topical organization of the Britannica's contents, complementary to the alphabetical organization of the other two parts. Introduced in 1974 with the 15th edition, the Propædia and Micropædia were intended to replace the Index of the 14th edition; however, after widespread criticism, the Britannica restored the Index as a two-volume set in 1985. The core of the Propædia is its Outline of Knowledge, which seeks to provide a logical framework for all human knowledge; however, the Propædia also has several appendices listing the staff members, advisors and contributors to all three parts of the Britannica. (Encyclopædia Britannica, 2015) [11]blank.gif Wikipedia
See also general knowledge

Mortimer Jerome Adler (December 28, 1902 – June 28, 2001) was an American philosopher, educator, and popular author. As a philosopher he worked within the Aristotelian and Thomistic traditions. He lived for the longest stretches in New York City, Chicago, San Francisco, and San Mateo, California. He worked for Columbia University, the University of Chicago, Encyclopædia Britannica, and Adler's own Institute for Philosophical Research. Adler co-founded the Great Books of the Western World program and the Great Books Foundation. He founded and served as director of the Institute for Philosophical Research in 1952. He also served on the Board of Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica from its inception in 1949, and succeeded Hutchins as its chairman from 1974. As the director of editorial planning for the fifteenth edition of Britannica from 1965, he was instrumental in the major reorganization of knowledge embodied in that edition. He introduced the Paideia Proposal which resulted in his founding the Paideia Program, a grade-school curriculum centered around guided reading and discussion of difficult works (as judged for each grade). With Max Weismann, he founded the Center for the Study of The Great Ideas in 1990 in Chicago. (Mortimer Adler, 2015) [12]blank.gif Wikipedia
Mortimer J. Alder

A Syntopicon: An Index to The Great Ideas (1952) is a two-volume index, published as volumes 2 and 3 of Encyclopædia Britannica’s collection Great Books of the Western World. Compiled by Mortimer Adler, an American philosopher, under the guidance of Robert Hutchins, president of the University of Chicago, the volumes were billed as a collection of the 102 great ideas of the western canon. The term “syntopicon” was coined specifically for this undertaking, meaning “a collection of topics.” The volumes catalogued what Adler and his team deemed to be the fundamental ideas contained in the works of the Great Books of the Western World, which stretched chronologically from Homer to Freud. The Syntopicon lists, under each idea, where every occurrence of the concept can be located in the collection’s famous works. (Syntopicon, 2015) [13]blank.gif Wikipedia
In March 2012, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. announced it would no longer continue to publish its printed editions, instead focusing on its online version, Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Its final print edition was in 2010, a 32-volume set. Today digital versions have been developed and released on optical media and online. In 1996, the Britannica was bought by Jacqui Safra at well below its estimated value, owing to the company's financial difficulties. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. split in 1999. One part retained the company name and developed the print version, and the other, Britannica.com Inc., developed digital versions. Since 2001, the two companies have shared a CEO, Ilan Yeshua, who has continued Powell's strategy of introducing new products with the Britannica name. In March 2012, Britannica's president, Jorge Cauz, announced that it would not produce any new print editions of the encyclopaedia, with the 2010 15th edition being the last. The company will focus only on the online edition and other educational tools. (Encyclopædia Britannica, 2012) [14]blank.gif Wikipedia
Britannica stops presses and goes digital

After 244 Years, Encyclopaedia Britannica Stops the Presses (Julie Bosman, New York Times)

1992 Encyclopedia Britannica Commercial

Britannica Online Encyclopedia


Wikipedia is a free, collaboratively edited and multilingual Internet encyclopedia supported by the non-profit Wikimedia Foundation. Its 22 million articles (over 3.9 million in English alone) have been written collaboratively by volunteers around the world. Almost all of its articles can be edited by anyone with access to the site, and it has about 100,000 regularly active contributors.

Wikipedia was launched in January 2001 by Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger. Sanger coined the name Wikipedia, which is a portmanteau of wiki (a type of collaborative website, from the Hawaiian word wiki, meaning "quick") and encyclopedia. Wikipedia's departure from the expert-driven style of encyclopedia building and the presence of a large body of unacademic content have received extensive attention in print media. (Wikipedia, 2015) [15]blank.gif Wikipedia

The State of Wikipedia by JESS3

Jimmy Wales: How a ragtag band created Wikipedia

The Wikipedia Revolution: How A Bunch of Nobodies Created The World's Greatest Encyclopedia (Andrew, 2009) [16]
Jimmy Wales (Wikipedia)

How to Edit a Wikipedia Article

Wikipedia in Plain English (Common Craft)
Integrating Wikipedia in Your Courses: Tips and Tricks (Adeline Koh, Chronicle of Higher Education)

Wikipedia Bans Hundreds Of “Black Hat” Paid Editors Who Created Promotional Pages On Its Site (Sarah Perez, Tech Crunch)

10 Weirdest Things On Wikipedia


Citizendium: A "citizens' compendium of everything"
"Project to create a user-created encyclopedia that aims to improve on the Wikipedia model by adding 'gentle expert oversight' and requiring contributors to use their real names."

Scholarpedia: The free peer reviewed encyclopedia
"Offering very scholarly articles on very complex subjects, Scholarpedia improves on the anyone-can-edit idea of Wikipedia by making sure that the original author of all of its articles is an expert on the subject, that each article is peer-reviewed, and that any revisions of an article is first approved of by the original author."


World Brain (H.G. Wells)
Herbert George or "H. G." Wells (September 21, 1866 – August 13, 1946) was an English writer, now best known for his work in the science fiction genre. He was also a prolific writer in many other genres, including contemporary novels, history, politics and social commentary, even writing textbooks and rules for war games. His most notable science fiction works include The War of the Worlds, The Time Machine, The Invisible Man and The Island of Doctor Moreau. (H.G. Wells, 2015) [17]blank.gif Wikipedia
Orson Welles Meets HG Wells

World Brain is a collection of essays and addresses the English science fiction pioneer, social reformer, evolutionary biologist and historian H. G. Wells written during the period 1936-38. Throughout the book, Wells describes his vision of the world brain: a new, free, synthetic, authoritative, permanent "World Encyclopaedia" that could help world citizens make the best use of universal information resources and make the best contribution to world peace. (World Brain, 2015) [18]blank.gif Wikipedia
World Brain: The Idea of a Permanent World Encyclopaedia (H.G. Wells)
Contribution to the new Encyclopédie Française,1937
//World Brain// (H.G. Wells, 1938)
World encyclopaedia (H. G. Wells)

Fashioning a world brain (Ivars Peterson, Proceedings of the ASIS 1996 Annual Meeting)

Encyclopedia Galactica (Issac Asimov)
Isaac Asimov (born Isaak Yudovich Ozimov; c. January 2, 1920 – April 6, 1992) was an American author and professor of biochemistry at Boston University, best known for his works of science fiction and for his popular science books. Asimov was one of the most prolific writers of all time, having written or edited more than 500 books and an estimated 90,000 letters and postcards. His works have been published in all ten major categories of the Dewey Decimal System (although his only work in the 100s—which covers philosophy and psychology—was a foreword for The Humanist Way).

Asimov's most famous work is the Foundation series; his other major series are the Galactic Empire series and the Robot series, both of which he later tied into the same fictional universe as the Foundation series to create a unified "future history" for his stories much like those pioneered by Robert A. Heinlein and previously produced by Cordwainer Smith and Poul Anderson. He wrote many short stories, among them Nightfall, which in 1964 was voted by the Science Fiction Writers of America the best short science fiction story of all time. (Isaac Asimov, 2015) [19]blank.gif Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Galactica is a fictional or hypothetical encyclopædia of a future human galaxy-spanning civilization, containing all the knowledge accumulated by a society with quadrillions of people and thousands of years of history. The name evokes the exhaustive and imperialistic aspects of the real-life Encyclopædia Britannica. The concept and name of the Encyclopædia Galactica first appeared in Isaac Asimov's short story "Foundation" (Astounding Science Fiction, May 1942), later republished as "The Encyclopædists" in the short story collection Foundation (1951). Asimov's Encyclopædia Galactica was a compendium of all knowledge then available in the Galactic Empire, intended to preserve that knowledge in a remote region of the Galaxy in the event of a foreseen Galactic catastrophe. The encyclopædia is later revealed to be an element in an act of misdirection, its real purpose being to concentrate a group of skilled physical scientists on a remote, resource-poor planet, with the long-term aim of revitalizing the technologically stagnant and scientifically dormant Empire. Originally published in a physical medium, it later becomes computerized and subject to continual change. Asimov used the Encyclopedia Galactica as a literary device throughout his Foundation series, beginning many of the book sections or chapters with a short extract from the Encyclopedia discussing a key character or event in the story. (Encyclopedia Galactica, 2015) [20]blank.gif Encyclopedia Galactica (Wikipedia) Foundation Series (Wikipedia)
Issac Asimov's Foundation & Encyclopedia Galactica

Isaac Asimov How Humanity Can Save The Earth for Humans

Encyclopedia Galactica (Wikipedia)
The Encyclopedia Galactica - Terminus
Encyclopedia Galactica, Fun Fan Site

See Asimov's Foundation Series on Worldcat...
Published for the First Time a 1959 Essay by Isaac Asimov on Creativity MIT Technology Review
Bill Moyers' interviews with Isaac Asimov

Hitchhiker's Guide (Douglas Adams)
The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy is the first of five books in the Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy comedy science fiction "trilogy" by Douglas Adams (with the sixth written by Eoin Colfer). The novel is an adaptation of the first four parts of Adams' radio series of the same name. The novel was first published in London on 12 October 1979. It sold 250,000 copies in the first three months. The namesake of the novel is The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, a fictional guide book for hitchhikers (inspired by the Hitch-hiker's Guide to Europe) written in the form of an encyclopedia. (The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, 2015) [21]blank.gif Wikipedia
Hitchhiker's guide to the galaxy, Introduction

The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy (Adams, 1980) [22]

Douglas Adams: Parrots the Universe and Everything

Project Galactic Guide (h2g2, Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy Foundation)
Spoof encyclopedia meant to guide and misguide its readers in matters of life, death, and finding a parking space anywhere in the Universe, in the style of the Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy.
h2g2 The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy: Earth Edition (Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy Foundation)
alt.galactic-guide FAQ: Project Galactic Guide (FAQS.org)
The Hitchhiker's Guide Project: A Complete Repository Of Characters, Planets, & Other Hoopy Froods (Sean Conner et. al.)


Encyclopedia Introduction (HBO)

Encyclopedia (HBO) Wikipedia ISBNdb WorldCat

Rudiments of Wisdom Encyclopedia (Tim Hunkin)
Cartoon, with A to Z drawings by Tim Hunkin illustrating topics like animals, geography, science, and history.
Check out his entry for " Encyclopaedia"


Encyclopedias - Google News

© Cosma (v.1.5) creator mehopper revised 12/13/2016

  1. ^ Encyclopedia. 2015. In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary (11th ed.). Retrieved January 5, 2015, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/encyclopedia
  2. ^ Encyclopedia. (2015). In Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved January 15, 2015, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Encyclopedia
  3. ^ Encyclopédie. (2016). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved January 6, 2016, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Encyclop%C3%A9die
  4. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica. (2015). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved June 21, 2015, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Encyclop%C3%A6dia_Britannica
  5. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica. (2015). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved June 21, 2015, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Encyclop%C3%A6dia_Britannica
  6. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica. (2015). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved June 21, 2015, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Encyclop%C3%A6dia_Britannica
  7. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition. (2015). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved June 21, 2015, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Encyclop%C3%A6dia_Britannica_Eleventh_Edition
  8. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica. (2015). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved June 21, 2015, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Encyclop%C3%A6dia_Britannica
  9. ^ Propaedeutics. (2015). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved June 21, 2015, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Propaedeutics
  10. ^ . (2015). In The Encyclopedia Americana: a library of universal knowledge, Volume 21. Encyclopedia Americana Corp. 1919.
  11. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica. (2015). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved June 21, 2015, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prop%C3%A6dia
  12. ^ Mortimer Adler. (2015). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved June 21, 2015, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mortimer_Adler
  13. ^ Syntopicon. (2015). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved June 21, 2015, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Syntopicon:_An_Index_to_The_Great_Ideas
  14. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica. (2012). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved June 21, 2012, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Encyclop%C3%A6dia_Britannica
  15. ^ Wikipedia. (2015). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved June 21, 2015, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia
  16. ^ Andrew, L. (2009). The Wikipedia Revolution: How A Bunch of Nobodies Created The World's Greatest Encyclopedia. New York: Hyperion. Retrieved June 21, 2012, from http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=ti%3AWikipedia+Revolution+How+a+Bunch+of+Nobodies+Created+the+Worlds+Greatest+Encyclopedia
  17. ^ H.G. WElls. (2015). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved June 21, 2015, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hg_wells
  18. ^ World Brain. (2015). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved June 21, 2015, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Brain
  19. ^ Isaac Asimov. (2015). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved June 21, 2015, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isaac_Asimov
  20. ^ Encyclopedia Galactica. (2015). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved June 21, 2015, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Encyclopedia_Galactica
  21. ^ The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy. (2015). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved June 21, 2015, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Hitchhiker%27s_Guide_to_the_Galaxy
  22. ^ Adams, D. (1980). The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy. New York : Ballantine Books Retrieved June 21, 2012, from http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=ti%3AHitchhikers+guide+to+the+Galaxy&qt=results_page