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Cosma arrow.gif communication arrow.gif knowledge arrow.gif form arrow.gif expression arrow.gif fun & games arrow.gif game
game : activity engaged in for diversion or amusement (game, 2015) [1] blank.gif Webster | OneLook | Visuwords See also Game Development Dictionary, GameDev.net
Game is a structured activity, usually undertaken for enjoyment and sometimes used as an educational tool. Games are distinct from work, which is usually carried out for remuneration, and from art, which is more concerned with the expression of ideas. A game can also be distinguished from play which is usually unstructured, and a puzzle which requires a strong mental concentration and is undertaken alone. However, the distinction is not clear-cut, and many games are also considered to be work (such as professional players of spectator sports/games) or art (such as jigsaw puzzles or games involving an artistic layout such as Mahjong, solitaire, or some video games). (Game, 2015) [2] Wikipedia


humor | toy | hobby | game | competition | adventure | spectacle

tic-tac-toe | hangman | scrabble | tiddlywinks | charades
board game | checkers | chess
games of chance | roulette | bingo | backgammon | dominoes
card game | solitaire | cribbage | whist | bridge | pinochle | rummy | poker | blackjack
puzzle | crossword
simulation | role-play | sport


World Video Game Hall of Fame Induction Ceremony 2015

Mario joins Pac-Man, Doom as first to enter Video Game Hall of Fame

The World Video Game Hall of Fame at The Strong in Rochester, New York, recognizes the most popular and influential games of all time (World Video Game Hall of Fame)
International Center for the History of Electronic Games (National Museum of Play)
International Center for the History of Electronic Games (Wikipedia)
The National Museum of Play (Wikipedia)

900 Classic Arcade Games Now Available To Play Straight From Your Browser

Play 900 Classic Video Games in Your Browser (Stephanie Mlot, PC Mag)
Goodbye weekend plans Internet Archive now lets you play 900 classic arcade games (Seth Fiegerman, Mashable)

Arcade Game (Wikipedia)
Internet Arcade (Internet Archive)


Use these links to jump straight to some of the most popular types of resources based upon what you want to do.

shop blank.gif read blank.gif learn blank.gif interact blank.gif play


These are a few of the best general resources about "games", and so they are a great place to get started.

Game Spot blank.gif Sports and Games Portal (Wikipedia) blank.gif Portal Brain blank.gif Masters Traditional Games Shop)


Click on the names of the directories to see lists of the best resources about "games" on the web.

IPL blank.gif Best of the Web blank.gif dmoz Open Directory

Indoor games and amusements (BUBL LINK) blank.gif Indoor games of skill (BUBL LINK) blank.gif Games of chance (BUBL LINK)


Traditional games making a comeback

Moksha-Patamu, Snakes and Ladders (Masters Traditional Games Shop)

These are links to resources organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. more...


Subject Specific Links


Fact Monster, games & quizes Game terminology (Wikipedia)

Game developer's dictionary OneLook Merriam-Webster Newbury House Random House Free Wiktionary Visuwords

Game programmer glossary Video game glossary


GamePressure, Games Encyclopedia Wikipedia

Games of the world: How to make them, how to play them, how they came to be (Grunfeld)

Wikipedia outline of games

The online guide to traditional games What they play, the family guide to video games

Serious games taxonomy (Ben Sawyer & Peter Smith)

GameTheory.net Game theory (Wikipedia)

Specific Games (Internet Public Library)
Computer/Video/Arcade Games (Internet Public Library)
Dewey 793 Indoor games and amusements (BUBL LINK)
Dewey 794 Indoor games of skill (BUBL LINK)
Dewey 795 Games of chance (BUBL LINK)
Best of the Web Joe Ant GeniusFind
Free dmoz Commercial Best of the Web

DuckDuckGo WolframAlpha

50 Greatest game innovations (Ernest Adams, Bloomberg Bsinessweek)

The game layer on top of the world (Seth Priebatsch, TEDxBoston))


Research finds video games can impact creativity (Nathalie Caron)

Game room games & accessories

The science of games (Michio Kaku) The secret glossary of social games analytics

Game research and technology (Craig Reynolds) Digital Game Research Association (DiGRA)

GAMASUTRA: The Art and Business of Making Games Make games online

How to make video games


Toy & game inventors

Hoovers Thomas Reg. CorporateInfo

GamesIndustry.biz Sloperama's game biz advice

shop GameSpot, marketplace Amazon, video games Amazon, game downloads Top selling games on eBay gift A gift guide for gamers of all types (Larry Frum, CNN) Zazzle

Where games go to sleep: The game preservation crisis, part 1 (John Andersen) part 2 (John Andersen) Game Preservation SIG, IGDA The Vintage Game Preservation Society (Les Chappell) Beyond video game preservation

Tradgames (Masters Traditional Games Shop) Games history (Goggle Directory)

Historic games timeline

Classic gaming museum

The game archives (computer)

Library of Congress

WorldCat (OAIster) Library of Congress UPenn Online Books Open Library Hathi Trust

ISBNdb Google Books eBooks.com Barnes and Noble Amazon eBay Books

Collaborative environments, online games, participatory design

Toward a theory of game-media literacy: Playing and building as reading and writing (Idit Harel Caperton) Making games after-school: Participatory game design in non-formal learning environments (Kevin Clark, Jami Brandt, Rhonda Hopkins & Jason Wilhelm)

Early childhood games

Fact Monster Games kids play

Top game design programs, Princeton Review & Game Pro Magazine (undergraduate & graduate)

Open Education Consortium


GameFAQs GameFAQs (Wikipedia)

Fun trivia quiz

Games Groups (Yahoo)

Make games online Gaming Careers (GameDev.net)

How to get paid to play video games, Howcast


Games Network


International Game Developer's Association IGDA (Wikipedia) Game Theory Society Digital Game Research Association (DiGRA) Association of Game and Puzzle collectors


PAX East Game Developer's Conference, San Francisco, CA 2010

Game Spot Games Industry.biz Game Daily News Popular Science - Entertainment & Gaming ScienceDaily, video games Entertainment & Gaming (Popular Science) NPR Archives Google News

Game developers and publishers (Google Directory)

Games Magazine


Games are vehicles for self expression Dream Machines: How games are unleashing the human imagination (Will Wright, Wired)

Fun, play and games: What makes games engaging (Marc Prensky) [pdf]


Amazon Toys

Collecting Games and Toys (Internet Public Library)

games about games Little Big Planet Mockingbird, The game making game

GameSpot FunBrain A Game a Day Game Room Game Demo Depot Play live skill games (Chess, Backgammon, Card, etc) OY1 Games

Independent games festival Global Game Jam

IGDA 48 Hour Game Making Competition

More about the 48 Hour Project...

The Art of Game Design (Jesse Schell) Are video games art? (Wired) Theater festival turns videogames into performance art Game art galleries (Creative Uncut)


The effects of trust and enjoyment on intention to play online games (Jiming Wu & De Liu)

Future of games (Jesse Schell, DICE 2010)

Future gaming technology

science fiction

Science fiction games (Wikipedia) Top 10 greatest sci-fi games (Scyfilove) Best sci-fi games of all time (UGO)

Fantasy games (Wikipedia) Top 10 fantasy video games of all time (FantasyBookNews.com)

Video game controversy (Wikipedia)

Rumor Control (GameSpot) Game guru, rumors (scroll down to find) Video game rumors, Yardbarker Snopes.com


electronic game : The term electronic game is the hypernym of the terms computer game, video game and mobile game. The term video game is historically restricted to games played on game consoles. The term computer game is used to refer to electronic games played on a general purpose computer. Wictionary
Electronic game is a game that employs electronics to create an interactive system with which a player can play. The most common form of electronic game today is the video game, and for this reason the terms are often mistakenly used synonymously. Other common forms of electronic game include such non-exclusively-visual products as handheld electronic games, standalone systems (e.g. pinball, slot machines, or electro-mechanical arcade games), and specifically non-visual products (e.g. audio games). There are electronic game sets for chess, draughts and many others. (Electronic game, 2012) [3]blank.gif Wikipedia
Category: Electronic and Video games (Wikipedia)
Outline of electronic and video games (Wikipedia)
List of books on computer and video games (Wikipedia)

Digital Game Research Association (DiGRA)
Boston Post Mortem

See also on this site...
Brøderbund, Myst
Wizards of the Coast, D&D
Blizzard, World of Warcraft
Maxis, Sims


Electronic Game History

History of Video Games Pt 1 - Spacewar! (The Irate Gamer)

See also on this site...
Hingham Institute, Spacewar!

International Center for the History of Electronic Games (National Museum of Play)

History of Video Games, Course (University of Baltimore) History of Video Games, Bibliography (University of Baltimore)

Video-Game Rooms Become the Newest Library Space Invaders (Ben Wieder, Chronicle of Higher Ed)
U. of Texas Builds the Retro Video-Game Archive of the Future (Ben Wieder, Chronicle of Higher Ed)

Classic video games get remastered (Mike Snider, USA TODAY)


Pinball Hall of Fame | TechCrunch Makers

Pinball Museum.org (Official Site)
Pinball Hall of Fame (Fan Site)
Pinball Hall of Fame (Wikipedia)

Simple (Pin)Ball, Click the picture or link below to play a live 3D game!


Simple (Pin)Ball (Google Chrome Experiments)


'Arcade' Coming To New York City's Museum of Modern Art (ClevverGames)

Museum of Modern Art Puts Its Game Face On (Yannick LeJacq, Wall Street Journal Blogs)
Museum of Modern Art launches videogames collection (Jonathan Ore, CBC News)
NY museum calls Pac-Man, Tetris 'modern art' (New York Post via Fox News)


Fantasia: Music Evolved Announcement Trailer

Harmonix, Disney make music together (Hiawatha Bray, Boston Globe)

Harmonix Music Systems (Official Site)
Harmonix Music Systems (Wikipedia)


Arcade game is a coin-operated entertainment machine, usually installed in public businesses, such as restaurants, bars, and particularly amusement arcades. Most arcade games are video games, pinball machines, electro-mechanical games, redemption games, and merchandisers. The golden age of arcade video games was from the late 1970s through the 1980s. While arcade games were still relatively popular during the 1990s, this type of media saw a continuous decline in popularity in the Western world when video game consoles made the transition from 2D to 3D. Despite this, arcades remain popular in Asia through to the present day. The term "arcade game" is also, in recent times, used to refer to a video game that was designed to look like a classic arcade game (adopting an isometric view, 2D graphics, scores, lives, etc.) but instead released on platforms such as XBLA or PC. (Arcade game, 2015) [4]blank.gif Wikipedia
The Last Starfighter Theatrical Trailer

History of Gaming Episode 2 w / BarnInEffect

Golden age of video arcade games (Wikipedia)
Computer/Video/Arcade Games (Internet Public Library)

PacMan Live! (Google)
Space Invaders (Google)
PONG (Google)

Gaming Reimagined - Atari Arcade

Atari Arcade - Behind the Scenes

Microsoft, Atari Bring Arcade Classics to the Web (Scott Gilbertson, WebMonkey)
Atari Arcade Games Reimagined With CreateJS (Ian Elliot, iProgrammer)
Review: Atari Arcade brings retro joystick gaming back on iPad (Raymond Wong, DVICE)

Atari Arcade (Atari)

See also on this site...
Atari, Asteroids & Pong


Video game is an electronic game that involves human interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a video device. The word video in video game traditionally referred to a raster display device, but following popularization of the term "video game", it now implies any type of display device. The electronic systems used to play video games are known as platforms; examples of these are personal computers and video game consoles. These platforms range from large mainframe computers to small handheld devices. Specialized video games such as arcade games, while previously common, have gradually declined in use. Video games have gone on to become an art form and industry. (Video game, 2015) [5]blank.gif Wikipedia

Digital World - A Brief History of Video Games

The Ultimate History of Video Games: From Pong to Pokemon--The Story Behind the Craze That Touched Our Lives and Changed the World (Kent, 2010) [6]

The video game revolution (PBS)
Video games timeline (InfoPlease)
Video games portal (Wikipedia) Video game culture (Wikipedia)
The Art of Video Games

The World's Largest Video Game Collection -
Michael Thomasson's Guinness Book of World Records Event

NY Man Holds New Guinness Record for Video Game Collection (Stephanie Mlot, PC Mag)
NY man's 10,607 video games secure Guinness title (Carolyn Thompson, Seattle Times)


Console game is a form of interactive multimedia used for entertainment. The game consists of manipulable images (and usually sounds) generated by a video game console, and displayed on a television or similar audio-video system. The game itself is usually controlled and manipulated using a handheld device connected to the console called a controller. The controller generally contains a number of buttons and directional controls (such as analog joysticks) each of which has been assigned a purpose for interacting with and controlling the images on the screen. The display, speakers, console, and controls of a console can also be incorporated into one small object known as a handheld game console. (Console game, 2015) [7]blank.gif Wikipedia

GAME.COM console review

Nintendo's Wii (Official Site)
Nintendo's Wii (Wikipedia)

Sony's PlayStation 3 (Official Site)
Sony's PlayStation 3 (Wikipedia)

Microsoft's Xbox (Official Site)
Microsoft's Xbox (Wikipedia)

See also Microsoft


Mobile game is a video game played on a mobile phone, smartphone, PDA, tablet computer, portable media player or calculator. This does not include games played on dedicated handheld video game systems such as Nintendo 3DS or PlayStation Vita.

Mobile games are played using the technology present on the device itself. For networked games, there are various technologies in common use. Examples include text message (SMS), multimedia message (MMS) or GPS location identification. The first two-player game for mobile phones was a variant of the Snake game for the Nokia 6110, using the infrared port. However, there are non networked applications, that simply use the device platform to run the game software. The games may be installed over the air, side loaded onto the handset with a cable, or may be embedded in the handheld devices by the OEM or by the mobile operator.

Mobile games are usually downloaded via the mobile operator's network, but in some cases are also loaded in the mobile handsets when purchased, via infrared connection, Bluetooth, or memory card. (Mobile game, 2015) [8]blank.gif Wikipedia

Top 10 Mobile Games


Serious game is a game designed for a primary purpose other than pure entertainment. The "serious" adjective is generally prepended to refer to products used by industries like defense, education, scientific exploration, health care, emergency management, city planning, engineering, religion, and politics. (Serious game, 2015) [9]blank.gif Wikipedia
Jane McGonigal: Gaming can make a better world

Jane McGonigal (Official Site)
Jane McGonigal (Wikipedia))

Six Wonderful Things About Games (Jon Radoff's Internet Wonderland)
Games in the Classroom, part 2 (Anastasia Salter, Chronicle of Higher Education)

Serious Game Classification


How to win at rock-paper-scissors

Top Games of 2012

Top Games UpComing 2012 / 2013 (Pt.1)

What They Play (IGN Entertainment)



If Video Games Were Real


A Game a Day
Game Room
Game Demo Depot
Play skill games (Chess, Backgammon, Card, etc) against live opponents
OY1 Games
Lego Online


    Video Games News -- ScienceDaily


    Editor Mary E. Hopper
    Contributor Neil R. Carlson



    © Cosma creator mehopper editor mehopper revised 12/19/2016 v.1.5

    1. ^ game. 2015. In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved March 11, 2015, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/game
    2. ^ Game. (2015). In Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved March 11, 2015, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Game
    3. ^ Electronic game. (2012). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved June 21, 2012, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronic_game
    4. ^ Arcade game. (2015). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved June 21, 2015, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arcade_game
    5. ^ Video game. (2015). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved June 21, 2015, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Video_game
    6. ^ Kent, S. L. (2010). The Ultimate History of Video Games: From Pong to Pokemon--The Story Behind the Craze That Touched Our Lives and Changed the World. New York: Random House. Retrieved June 21, 2015, from http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=ti%3AThe+Ultimate+History+of+Video+Games&qt=results_page
    7. ^ Console game. (2015). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved June 21, 2015, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Console_game
    8. ^ Mobile game. (2015). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved June 21, 2015, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mobile_game
    9. ^ Serious game. (2015). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved June 21, 2015, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serious_game