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Cosma arrow.gif communication arrow.gif knowledgearrow.gif realmarrow.gif terrestrial arrow.gif land
land : the surface of the earth and all its natural resources (land, 2015) [1]blank.gifWebster | OneLook | Visuwords
lithosphere : the solid part of a celestial body (as the earth) ; specifically : the outer part of the solid earth composed of rock essentially like that exposed at the surface, consisting of the crust and outermost layer of the mantle, and usually considered to be about 60 miles (100 kilometers) in thickness (lithosphere, 2015) [2]blank.gifWebster | OneLook | Visuwords
landmass : a large area of land <continental landmass> (landmass, 2015) [3]blank.gifWebster | OneLook | Visuwords


Largest Volcano on Earth Found Rivals Largest in Solar System

New Mexico-size volcano discovered in the depths of the Pacific Ocean (Meeri Kim, Washington Post)

An immense shield volcano within the Shatsky Rise oceanic plateau, northwest Pacific Ocean (William W. Sager, et.al., Nature Geoscience)



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Earth blank.gif
air blank.gif
land blank.gif
ice blank.gif
blank.gifregent blank.gif blank.gif

life blank.gif
plant blank.gif
animal blank.gif
sapient blank.gif


plant blank.gif land (embryophyte, terrestrial)

animal blank.gif invertebrate blank.gif arachnid blank.gif spiderblank.gifscorpionblank.gif vertebrate blank.gif amphibianblank.gif reptile blank.gif
mammal blank.gif rodentiablank.gifmouse blank.giflagomorphablank.gifrabbit blank.gifartiodactylablank.gifdeerblank.gifcamelblank.gifgiraffeblank.gifpigblank.gifcowblank.gifsheepblank.gifperissodactylablank.gifhorse
proboscideablank.gifelephantblank.gifmammothblank.gifblank.gifcarnivorablank.gifcatblank.giflionblank.giftigerblank.gifdogblank.gifwolfblank.gifbear primate blank.gifblank.gifmonkeyblank.gifapeblank.gifhuman

See also land transportation


The Solid Earth - Environmental Science

Layers of the Earth (Music Video)

The Dynamic Earth, National Museum of Natural History
(Tour of the geology of the earth's surface and core)

These are links to resources organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. more...


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Lithosphere - Google News
  • Understandig Earth's Interior: Quakes, Volcanoes - Science Daily Yesterday
    Science DailyUnderstandig Earth's Interior: Quakes, VolcanoesScience DailyBy understanding this mechanism of Earth evolution, the team can make better predictions regarding the movement of the mantle and the lithosphere, or crust. The team then evaluated the model's predictions using other data. Hu, the lead author on the ...
  • Letters and feedback: May 23, 2017 - Florida Today Monday
    Florida TodayLetters and feedback: May 23, 2017Florida TodayWhat are the biosphere, lithosphere, atmosphere and hydrosphere? When you know what makes up the Earth, then you can identify the symptoms and problems. As I have argued with some friends, you have to identify the problem before you can begin to&nbsp;...
  • Understanding the moho and the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundaries - EurekAlert (press release) May 18, 2017
    EurekAlert (press release)Understanding the moho and the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundariesEurekAlert (press release)Additionally, they note, "At greater depths, the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) represents a first-order structural discontinuity that accommodates differential motion between the tectonic plates and the underlying mantle. This boundary is ...
  • Advancing a Multisphere Approach to Third Pole Research - Eos May 12, 2017
    EosAdvancing a Multisphere Approach to Third Pole ResearchEosMountains and an adjoining valley in Ladakh illustrate interactions of multiple spheres in the Tibetan Plateau region: atmosphere, cryosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. Adding to this the anthrosphere from the lead photograph gives a ...and more&nbsp;&raquo;
  • New timeline proposed for plate tectonics - Phys.Org May 11, 2017
    Phys.OrgNew timeline proposed for plate tectonicsPhys.OrgGeoscientists disagree over when plate tectonics began&mdash;specifically when the top layer of the crust, the lithosphere, began to slide over the underlying mantle. Estimates range from as early as a few tens of millions of years after the Earth formed ...


Editor Mary E. Hopper
Contributor Neil R. Carlson

© Cosma creator mehopper editor mehopper revised 7/16/2016 v.1.5

  1. ^ land. (2015). In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary (11th ed.). Retrieved June 21, 2015, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/land
  2. ^ lithosphere. (2015). In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary (11th ed.). Retrieved June 21, 2015, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/lithosphere
  3. ^ landmass. (2015). In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary (11th ed.). Retrieved June 21, 2015, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/landmass