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life : an organismic state characterized by capacity for metabolism, growth, reaction to stimuli, and reproduction (life, 2015) [1] blank.gif Webster | OneLook | Visuwords

biology : a branch of knowledge that deals with living organisms and vital processes (biology, 2015) [2] blank.gif Webster | OneLook | Visuwords

life science : a branch of science (as biology, medicine, and sometimes anthropology or sociology) that deals with living organisms and life processes —usually used in plural (life science, 2015) [3] blank.gif Webster | OneLook | Visuwords

biomass : the amount of living matter (as in a unit area or volume of habitat) (biomass, 2015) [4] blank.gif Webster | OneLook | Visuwords

See also Biology-online, Dictionary blank.gif more...

Life is a characteristic that distinguishes objects that have signaling and self-sustaining processes (i. e., living organisms) from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased (death), or else because they lack such functions and are classified as inanimate. Biology is the science concerned with the study of life.

Living organisms undergo metabolism, maintain homeostasis, possess a capacity to grow, respond to stimuli, reproduce and, through natural selection, adapt to their environment in successive generations. More complex living organisms can communicate through various means. A diverse array of living organisms (life forms) can be found in the biosphere on Earth, and the properties common to these organisms—plants, animals, fungi, protists, archaea, and bacteria—are a carbon- and water-based cellular form with complex organization and heritable genetic information. ("Life," 2015) [5] Wikipedia


Symphony of Science – The unbroken thread (life)

Discovering the Great Tree of Life

History of Life (ChronoZoom)



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blank.gifmicroscope blank.gif Linnaean system blank.gifmorphologyblank.gifanatomyblank.gifphysiology blank.gif cellblank.gifgeneblank.gifevolutionblank.giffossilblank.gif see also molecule

blank.gifmicroorganismblank.gif virus blank.gif archaea blank.gif prokaryote (bacteria) blank.gif mitochondria, chlorophlast
blank.gifeukaryote blank.gifplant algae blank.gifnot plant or animal protist, fungi, lichen blank.gifanimal protozoa, amoeba


Highway Of Life (part 1 of 2)

Highway Of Life (part 2 of 2)

Encyclopedia of Life catalogues more than one-third of Earth's species (Damian Carrington, The Gaurdian)
The field guide for citizen scientists, which aims at bringing all species on the planet together, has reached the 750,000 milestone.

Map of Life Shows the Location of All Organisms, Large and Small (Rebecca Boyle, PopSci)

These are links to resources organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. more...


Subject Specific Links


NOVA, Nature

Online Life Science Dictionary
OneLook Merriam-Webster Free Wiktionary Visuwords

Life Science Glossary UCMP Glossary, Life History UCMP Glossary, Biochemistry Tree of life Glossary

Nature Works (New Hampshire Public Television) Life (Wikipedia) New World Encyclopedia

Study of Northern Virginia Ecology, Classification Page
Natural Pespective (Ari Kornfeld)
Tree of Life Web Project
UCMP Web Lift to Taxa (UC Museum of Paleontology)

Specific 570 Life sciences, biology (BUBL LINK)
578.68 Threatened species (BUBL LINK)
630 Agriculture and related technologies (BUBL LINK)
Free Internet Public Library dmoz Commercial Best of the Web

"life" DuckDuckGo WolframAlpha


What is Bioscience (About Bio Science)

shop Amazon eBay gift Zazzle


Internet Archive

Library of Congress

WorldCat (OAIster) Library of Congress UPenn Online Books Open Library Hathi Trust

570 Life sciences, biology Dewey Browse
578.68 Threatened species Dewey Browse
630 Agriculture and related technologies Dewey Browse

ISBNdb Google Books eBooks.com


MIT OCW Biology Biology education, (BUBL LINK)
Bionerds' Biology Kingdoms Project

Open Education Consortium

Interactive tutorial and quizzes about Animal, Plant and Bacteria cells

Bioscience Careers


Nature, Life Sciences Science News, life ScienceDaily.com, life New Scientist, life Nature
Nature, Humans & Nature (PBS)
AAAS EurekAlert, biology Scientific American, biology PhysOrg.com, biology Plant and Animal News ScienceDaily.com, biology ScienceDaily.com, computational biology ScienceDaily.com, biochemistry ScienceDaily.com, origin of life
NPR Archives Google News

Biology journals (BUBL LINK)

Google Scholar

BioDiversity, Academic Info. (database)

Biology societies (BUBL LINK)



Photographer captures oldest living things in the world

Rachel Sussman The world's oldest living things Ted Talks

The World's Oldest Living Things (ABC News)

Oldest Living Things in the World (Rachel Sussman)


Extreme Shrimp May Hold Clues to Alien Life (JPL)

Journey to the Centre of Earth P3
(Vast Subsurface Bacteria, Formation of Caves)

Secrets of the deep: How the mass of organisms living in undersea volcanoes and rocks could out-weigh all of the animals on the surface (Eddie Wrenn, Daily Mail Online)
Researchers find evidence of 'incredible bio-mass' around deep-sea vents.

Intimate Strangers: Unseen Life on Earth 4 Part Video Series

First detailed report defines limits of methane-exhaling microbial life in an undersea volcano (Phys.org)

Researchers Identify Mysterious Life Forms in the Extreme Deep Sea (Scripps News)

Microbe found that can use arsenic as nutrient (Randolph E. Schmid, AP Science Writer)

‘Devil Worm’ Takes Animal Life to New Depths (Brandon Keim, Wired)

Deepest-dwelling Creature Could Be 'Mephisto' (Jennifer Viegas, Discovery News)

What are Nematodes? (Nematology Lab, University of Nebraska-Lincoln)
Phylum Nemata (Nematology Lab, University of Nebraska-Lincoln)


Thousands Of Species Found In Lake Under Antarctic Ice

Under the ice (Nature)

Rock-Eating Microbes Found in Buried Antarctic Lake (Irene Klotz, Discovery News)
Cold, Dark and Alive! Life Discovered in Buried Antarctic Lake (Becky Oskin, Live Science)

A microbial ecosystem beneath the West Antarctic ice sheet (Nature)
Icebridge Antarctic Operation (NASA)


New Life? Russian scientists discover unidentified bacteria

The Lost World of Lake Vostok

‘Unclassified’ Life Found in Antarctic Lake (RIA Novosti)


Scientists identify life forms in the deep layer of ocean crust

‘Parallel Universe’ of Life Described Far Beneath the Bottom of the Sea (Brandon Keim, Wired)
Life found deep under the sea: Oceanic-crust microbes survive on hydrogen and carbon dioxide (Ed Yong, Nature)


Origins of Life on Earth

Carl Sagan on chemistry of life on Earth & other planets

Revisiting 1950s Experiments for Signs of Life's Origin

Stars concoct complex molecules (Jason Palmer, BBC News)

Test Tube Yeast Evolve Multicellularity (Sarah Fecht, Scientific American)
By watching evolution in progress, scientists reveal key developments in the evolution of complex life and put evolutionary theories to the test.


Living Crystals of Light-Activated Colloidal Surfers

It’s (Almost) Alive! Scientists Create a Near-Living Crystal (Brandon Keim, Wired)



The Game Of Life
Interactive Plant and Animal Cell Model
In First, Software Emulates Lifespan of Entire Organism (John Markoff, New York Times)



Latest Headlines | Science News
Life Sciences News -- ScienceDaily

    • Getting Under a Spy Creature’s Skin by Eric R. Olson Feb 23, 2017
      Get a glimpse under the skin of the robot cameras featured in the NATURE mini-series “Spy in the Wild”. The design and engineering that goes into these ‘spy creatures’ is simply stunning.The post Getting Under a Spy Creature’s Skin appeared first on Nature.
    • Episode 4 | Bad Behavior by Eric R. Olson Feb 22, 2017
      Spy Creatures infiltrate the underground world of animal mischief, crime, and retribution. Spy Monkey is caught between crossfires as real monkeys fight over beach bar alcohol. Spy Egret is also a waterhole victim when elephants throw mud everywhere.The post Episode 4 | Bad Behavior appeared first on Nature.
    • Dolphins Behaving Badly by Eric R. Olson Feb 18, 2017
      Teenage male dolphins are notoriously ill-behaved. A ‘Spy Turtle’ and ‘Spy Pufferfish’ keep tabs on all of their bad behavior.The post Dolphins Behaving Badly appeared first on Nature.

    Comments on:

      EurekAlert! - Biology
      • Researchers discover how breast cancer mutation in BRCA1 causes protein to self-destruct Yesterday
        (Virginia Tech) Scientists at the Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute found that breast cancer cells can trigger the self-destruction of the tumor-suppressing BRCA1 proteins.
      • Banded mongooses go to war over sex and territory Yesterday
        (University of Exeter) Gang warfare is not unique to humans -- banded mongooses do it too.Now researchers from the University of Exeter have shed light on the causes of the fights -- and found they are most common when females are receptive to breeding and when there is competition over food and territory.
      • Secrets of the calcerous ooze revealed Yesterday
        (Washington University in St. Louis) By growing phytoplankton called coccolithophores in the lab, scientists were able to understand the large biological overprint on the climate signal encoded by their remains, clearing the way for their use as climate proxies.

      Scientific American
      • Medical Marijuana Faces Fed's Catch-22 by Steve Mirsky Yesterday
        Doing large studies of marijuana's potential as medicine means getting it removed from an official federal list of substances with no official medical use--which requires more proof of its potential... -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
      • Bees Learn Soccer from Their Buddies by Traci Watson Feb 23, 2017
        The insects show sophisticated learning for non-bee–related tasks, and can even improve on what they are taught -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
      • A New Model for Defeating Cancer: CAR T Cells by Avery D. Posey Feb 23, 2017
        Some advanced cancers can now be successfully treated by synthetic immune cells that are more powerful and longer-lasting than any found in the body -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

      Biology News - Evolution, Cell theory, Gene theory, Microbiology, Biotechnology
      Biology News -- ScienceDaily
      Computational Biology News -- ScienceDaily
      Biochemistry Research News -- ScienceDaily
      • Doctors should discuss herbal medication use with heart disease patients Yesterday
        Physicians should be well-versed in the herbal medications heart disease patients may take to be able to effectively discuss their clinical implications, potential benefits and side effects—despite a lack of scientific evidence to support their use, according to a review paper.
      • Recovering predators and prey Yesterday
        Researchers show how simultaneously restoring predators and prey is much faster and more effective than doing so one at a time.
      • Sponge bacterium found to encapsulate arsenic drawn from environment Yesterday
        A new study sheds light on a unique biological model of arsenic detoxification. According to the new research, the Entotheonella bacterium that inhabits the Theonella swinhoei sponge is one of the only known cases of a bacterium protecting its host from metal poisoning.

      Origin of Life News -- ScienceDaily
      • Europeans brought new strains of ulcer-causing bacterium to pre-Columbian Americas Feb 23, 2017
        A genomic study of a harmful stomach bacterium finds that foreign strains intermingled with and replaced local strains after the arrival of Europeans and African slaves across the Americas.
      • Neanderthal DNA contributes to human gene expression Feb 23, 2017
        The last Neanderthal died 40,000 years ago, but much of their genome lives on, in bits and pieces, through modern humans. The impact of Neanderthals' genetic contribution has been uncertain. Researchers now report evidence that Neanderthal DNA sequences still influence how genes are turned on or off in modern humans. Neanderthal genes' effects on gene expression likely contribute to traits such as height and susceptibility to schizophrenia or lupus, the researchers found.
      • Timetree dating in the absence of a fossil record in Asian Horned Frogs Feb 23, 2017
        New research has resolved a 195-year old confusion regarding relationships between the species of Asian Horned Frogs, an enigmatic group of frogs often with horn-like projections over their eyes. Using DNA sequences, they discovered many potentially new species in this group previously unknown to science.



      Editor Mary E. Hopper
      Contributor Neil R. Carlson

      © Cosma creator mehopper editor mehopper revised 2/10/2017 v.1.5

      1. ^ life. 2015. In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved January 11, 2015, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/life
      2. ^ biology. 2015. In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved Feburary 21, 2015, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/biology
      3. ^ life science. 2015. In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved February 21, 2015, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/life+science
      4. ^ biomass. 2015. In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved Feburary 21, 2015, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/biomass
      5. ^ Life. (2015). In Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved Feburary 21, 2015, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/life