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life : an organismic state characterized by capacity for metabolism, growth, reaction to stimuli, and reproduction (life, 2015) [1] blank.gif Webster | OneLook | Visuwords

biology : a branch of knowledge that deals with living organisms and vital processes (biology, 2015) [2] blank.gif Webster | OneLook | Visuwords

life science : a branch of science (as biology, medicine, and sometimes anthropology or sociology) that deals with living organisms and life processes —usually used in plural (life science, 2015) [3] blank.gif Webster | OneLook | Visuwords

biomass : the amount of living matter (as in a unit area or volume of habitat) (biomass, 2015) [4] blank.gif Webster | OneLook | Visuwords

See also Biology-online, Dictionary blank.gif more...

Life is a characteristic that distinguishes objects that have signaling and self-sustaining processes (i. e., living organisms) from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased (death), or else because they lack such functions and are classified as inanimate. Biology is the science concerned with the study of life.

Living organisms undergo metabolism, maintain homeostasis, possess a capacity to grow, respond to stimuli, reproduce and, through natural selection, adapt to their environment in successive generations. More complex living organisms can communicate through various means. A diverse array of living organisms (life forms) can be found in the biosphere on Earth, and the properties common to these organisms—plants, animals, fungi, protists, archaea, and bacteria—are a carbon- and water-based cellular form with complex organization and heritable genetic information. ("Life," 2015) [5] Wikipedia


Symphony of Science – The unbroken thread (life)

Discovering the Great Tree of Life

History of Life (ChronoZoom)



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blank.gifmicroscope blank.gif Linnaean system blank.gifmorphologyblank.gifanatomyblank.gifphysiology blank.gif cellblank.gifgeneblank.gifevolutionblank.giffossilblank.gif see also molecule

blank.gifmicroorganismblank.gif virus blank.gif archaea blank.gif prokaryote (bacteria) blank.gif mitochondria, chlorophlast
blank.gifeukaryote blank.gifplant algae blank.gifnot plant or animal protist, fungi, lichen blank.gifanimal protozoa, amoeba


Highway Of Life (part 1 of 2)

Highway Of Life (part 2 of 2)

Encyclopedia of Life catalogues more than one-third of Earth's species (Damian Carrington, The Gaurdian)
The field guide for citizen scientists, which aims at bringing all species on the planet together, has reached the 750,000 milestone.

Map of Life Shows the Location of All Organisms, Large and Small (Rebecca Boyle, PopSci)

These are links to resources organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. more...


Subject Specific Links


NOVA, Nature

Online Life Science Dictionary
OneLook Merriam-Webster Free Wiktionary Visuwords

Life Science Glossary UCMP Glossary, Life History UCMP Glossary, Biochemistry Tree of life Glossary

Nature Works (New Hampshire Public Television) Life (Wikipedia) New World Encyclopedia

Study of Northern Virginia Ecology, Classification Page
Natural Pespective (Ari Kornfeld)
Tree of Life Web Project
UCMP Web Lift to Taxa (UC Museum of Paleontology)

Specific 570 Life sciences, biology (BUBL LINK)
578.68 Threatened species (BUBL LINK)
630 Agriculture and related technologies (BUBL LINK)
Free Internet Public Library dmoz Commercial Best of the Web

"life" DuckDuckGo WolframAlpha


What is Bioscience (About Bio Science)

shop Amazon eBay gift Zazzle


Internet Archive

Library of Congress

WorldCat (OAIster) Library of Congress UPenn Online Books Open Library Hathi Trust

570 Life sciences, biology Dewey Browse
578.68 Threatened species Dewey Browse
630 Agriculture and related technologies Dewey Browse

ISBNdb Google Books eBooks.com


MIT OCW Biology Biology education, (BUBL LINK)
Bionerds' Biology Kingdoms Project

Open Education Consortium

Interactive tutorial and quizzes about Animal, Plant and Bacteria cells

Bioscience Careers


Nature, Life Sciences Science News, life ScienceDaily.com, life New Scientist, life Nature
Nature, Humans & Nature (PBS)
AAAS EurekAlert, biology Scientific American, biology PhysOrg.com, biology Plant and Animal News ScienceDaily.com, biology ScienceDaily.com, computational biology ScienceDaily.com, biochemistry ScienceDaily.com, origin of life
NPR Archives Google News

Biology journals (BUBL LINK)

Google Scholar

BioDiversity, Academic Info. (database)

Biology societies (BUBL LINK)



Photographer captures oldest living things in the world

Rachel Sussman The world's oldest living things Ted Talks

The World's Oldest Living Things (ABC News)

Oldest Living Things in the World (Rachel Sussman)


Extreme Shrimp May Hold Clues to Alien Life (JPL)

Journey to the Centre of Earth P3
(Vast Subsurface Bacteria, Formation of Caves)

Secrets of the deep: How the mass of organisms living in undersea volcanoes and rocks could out-weigh all of the animals on the surface (Eddie Wrenn, Daily Mail Online)
Researchers find evidence of 'incredible bio-mass' around deep-sea vents.

Intimate Strangers: Unseen Life on Earth 4 Part Video Series

First detailed report defines limits of methane-exhaling microbial life in an undersea volcano (Phys.org)

Researchers Identify Mysterious Life Forms in the Extreme Deep Sea (Scripps News)

Microbe found that can use arsenic as nutrient (Randolph E. Schmid, AP Science Writer)

‘Devil Worm’ Takes Animal Life to New Depths (Brandon Keim, Wired)

Deepest-dwelling Creature Could Be 'Mephisto' (Jennifer Viegas, Discovery News)

What are Nematodes? (Nematology Lab, University of Nebraska-Lincoln)
Phylum Nemata (Nematology Lab, University of Nebraska-Lincoln)


Thousands Of Species Found In Lake Under Antarctic Ice

Under the ice (Nature)

Rock-Eating Microbes Found in Buried Antarctic Lake (Irene Klotz, Discovery News)
Cold, Dark and Alive! Life Discovered in Buried Antarctic Lake (Becky Oskin, Live Science)

A microbial ecosystem beneath the West Antarctic ice sheet (Nature)
Icebridge Antarctic Operation (NASA)


New Life? Russian scientists discover unidentified bacteria

The Lost World of Lake Vostok

‘Unclassified’ Life Found in Antarctic Lake (RIA Novosti)


Scientists identify life forms in the deep layer of ocean crust

‘Parallel Universe’ of Life Described Far Beneath the Bottom of the Sea (Brandon Keim, Wired)
Life found deep under the sea: Oceanic-crust microbes survive on hydrogen and carbon dioxide (Ed Yong, Nature)


Origins of Life on Earth

Carl Sagan on chemistry of life on Earth & other planets

Revisiting 1950s Experiments for Signs of Life's Origin

Stars concoct complex molecules (Jason Palmer, BBC News)

Test Tube Yeast Evolve Multicellularity (Sarah Fecht, Scientific American)
By watching evolution in progress, scientists reveal key developments in the evolution of complex life and put evolutionary theories to the test.


Living Crystals of Light-Activated Colloidal Surfers

It’s (Almost) Alive! Scientists Create a Near-Living Crystal (Brandon Keim, Wired)



The Game Of Life
Interactive Plant and Animal Cell Model
In First, Software Emulates Lifespan of Entire Organism (John Markoff, New York Times)



Latest Headlines | Science News
Life Sciences News -- ScienceDaily

    • Dolphins Behaving Badly by Eric R. Olson Saturday
      Teenage male dolphins are notoriously ill-behaved. A ‘Spy Turtle’ and ‘Spy Pufferfish’ keep tabs on all of their bad behavior.The post Dolphins Behaving Badly appeared first on Nature.
    • Skua Steals ‘Spy Egg’ by Eric R. Olson Saturday
      Skuas are large sea birds that have a talent for poaching eggs. Go along for the ride as a skua grabs what it thinks is a penguin egg, but is really a hidden ‘spy camera’.The post Skua Steals ‘Spy Egg’ appeared first on Nature.
    • Episode 3 | Friendship by Eric R. Olson Feb 15, 2017
      Spy Creatures and their new wild friends rely on each other to look out for predators. A Spy Meerkat babysits meerkat pups while a Spy Cobra pretends to attack the mob. Spy Crocs witness a convenient partnership between real crocodiles and birds.The post Episode 3 | Friendship appeared first on Nature.

    Comments on:

      EurekAlert! - Biology
      • 'Tully monster' mystery is far from solved, Penn-led group argues Yesterday
        (University of Pennsylvania) Last year, headlines in The New York Times, The Atlantic, Scientific American and other outlets declared that a decades-old paleontological mystery had been solved. The 'Tully monster,' an ancient animal that had long defied classification, was in fact a vertebrate, two groups of scientists claimed. Specifically, it seemed to be a type of fish called a lamprey. The problem with this resolution? According to a group of paleobiologists led by the University of Penns...
      • Child obesity '35-40 percent' inherited from parents, study finds Yesterday
        (University of Sussex) Around 35-40 percent of a child's BMI -- how fat or thin they are -- is inherited from their parents, a new study has found.
      • Moth gift: Winner of an eBay auction thanks his mother by naming a new species after her Yesterday
        (Pensoft Publishers) Winner of an eBay auction Steve Mix received the opportunity to pick the name for a new species of satiny-white winged moth collected from the white gypsum dunes of the White Sands National Monument, New Mexico. A fan of butterflies and moths himself, he chose to honor his supportive and encouraging mother Delinda Mix, so the moth is now formally listed under the species name delindae. It is described in the open access journal ZooKeys.

      Scientific American
      Biology News - Evolution, Cell theory, Gene theory, Microbiology, Biotechnology
      Biology News -- ScienceDaily
      Computational Biology News -- ScienceDaily
      • Computational methods applied to big datasets are compelling tools for historical linguistics Feb 7, 2017
        Researchers have tested the capacity of different computational approaches to detect cognates with striking success rates: The best-performing method could detect word relationships with an accuracy level of nearly 90 percent. This result confirms the potential of computational methodologies in the humanities, but also opens up exciting new pathways for future research in historical linguistics and human prehistory.
      • Toxic liver effects of fifteen drugs predicted using computational approach Feb 2, 2017
        A team of researchers has used a computational modeling approach to analyze and compare the toxic effects of fifteen different drugs on the liver, according to a new study.
      • Modeling the rhythmic electrical activities of the brain Jan 24, 2017
        Researchers studying the brain have long been interested in its neural oscillations, the rhythmic electrical activity that plays an important role in the transmission of information within the brain's neural circuits. Working with the Wilson-Cowan model, a widely-used model in computational neuroscience that describes the average activity of populations of interconnected neurons, Leandro Alonso has designed a new mathematical tool to help explore the broad spectrum of responses possible from ...

      Biochemistry Research News -- ScienceDaily
      Origin of Life News -- ScienceDaily
      • Biodiversity can promote ecosystem efficiency Feb 16, 2017
        Humans influence evolution. In the case of whitefish in Swiss lakes, one consequence of this is replacement of a diversity of specialized species by fewer generalists. A recent analysis now suggests that communities of diverse specialists utilize trophic resources more efficiently.
      • Ötzi the Iceman: Researchers validate the stability of genetic markers Feb 16, 2017
        Biomarkers are biological attributes that can give doctors or researchers clues about the health status or illnesses of a patient. Scientists are placing great hope in a new type of biomarker, so-called microRNAs. These short ribonucleic acid molecules are notable for their very high level of stability. Researchers have now established that such microRNAs can remain stable even after 5,300 years.
      • Explosion in species diversity due to hybridization Feb 10, 2017
        No less than 500 new species of cichlids, brightly coloured perch-like fish, evolved in Lake Victoria (East Africa) over the past 15,000 years -- a record in the animal and plant world. This evolutionary puzzle has now been solved by scientists. They demonstrate for the first time that this rapid evolution was facilitated by earlier hybridization between two distantly related cichlid species from the Upper Nile and Congo drainage systems.



      Editor Mary E. Hopper
      Contributor Neil R. Carlson

      © Cosma creator mehopper editor mehopper revised 2/10/2017 v.1.5

      1. ^ life. 2015. In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved January 11, 2015, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/life
      2. ^ biology. 2015. In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved Feburary 21, 2015, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/biology
      3. ^ life science. 2015. In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved February 21, 2015, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/life+science
      4. ^ biomass. 2015. In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved Feburary 21, 2015, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/biomass
      5. ^ Life. (2015). In Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved Feburary 21, 2015, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/life