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life : an organismic state characterized by capacity for metabolism, growth, reaction to stimuli, and reproduction (life, 2015) [1] blank.gif Webster | OneLook | Visuwords

biology : a branch of knowledge that deals with living organisms and vital processes (biology, 2015) [2] blank.gif Webster | OneLook | Visuwords

life science : a branch of science (as biology, medicine, and sometimes anthropology or sociology) that deals with living organisms and life processes —usually used in plural (life science, 2015) [3] blank.gif Webster | OneLook | Visuwords

biomass : the amount of living matter (as in a unit area or volume of habitat) (biomass, 2015) [4] blank.gif Webster | OneLook | Visuwords

See also Biology-online, Dictionary blank.gif more...

Life is a characteristic that distinguishes objects that have signaling and self-sustaining processes (i. e., living organisms) from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased (death), or else because they lack such functions and are classified as inanimate. Biology is the science concerned with the study of life.

Living organisms undergo metabolism, maintain homeostasis, possess a capacity to grow, respond to stimuli, reproduce and, through natural selection, adapt to their environment in successive generations. More complex living organisms can communicate through various means. A diverse array of living organisms (life forms) can be found in the biosphere on Earth, and the properties common to these organisms—plants, animals, fungi, protists, archaea, and bacteria—are a carbon- and water-based cellular form with complex organization and heritable genetic information. ("Life," 2015) [5] Wikipedia

Spotlight


Symphony of Science – The unbroken thread (life)


Discovering the Great Tree of Life


History of Life (ChronoZoom)

Related


Subjects

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life blank.gif
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animal blank.gif
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Subheadings

blank.gifmicroscope blank.gif Linnaean system blank.gifmorphologyblank.gifanatomyblank.gifphysiology blank.gif cellblank.gifgeneblank.gifevolutionblank.giffossilblank.gif see also molecule

blank.gifmicroorganismblank.gif virus blank.gif archaea blank.gif prokaryote (bacteria) blank.gif mitochondria, chlorophlast
blank.gifeukaryote blank.gifplant algae blank.gifnot plant or animal protist, fungi, lichen blank.gifanimal protozoa, amoeba

Resources


Highway Of Life (part 1 of 2)

Highway Of Life (part 2 of 2)


Encyclopedia of Life catalogues more than one-third of Earth's species (Damian Carrington, The Gaurdian)
The field guide for citizen scientists, which aims at bringing all species on the planet together, has reached the 750,000 milestone.

Map of Life Shows the Location of All Organisms, Large and Small (Rebecca Boyle, PopSci)

These are links to resources organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. more...

Type

Subject Specific Links
general.jpg


portal

NOVA, Nature
dictionary

Online Life Science Dictionary
OneLook Merriam-Webster Free Wiktionary Visuwords
glossary

Life Science Glossary UCMP Glossary, Life History UCMP Glossary, Biochemistry Tree of life Glossary
encyclopedia

Nature Works (New Hampshire Public Television) Life (Wikipedia) New World Encyclopedia
classification

Study of Northern Virginia Ecology, Classification Page
Natural Pespective (Ari Kornfeld)
Tree of Life Web Project
UCMP Web Lift to Taxa (UC Museum of Paleontology)
directory

Specific 570 Life sciences, biology (BUBL LINK)
578.68 Threatened species (BUBL LINK)
630 Agriculture and related technologies (BUBL LINK)
Free Internet Public Library dmoz Commercial Best of the Web
search

"life" DuckDuckGo WolframAlpha
innovation.jpg


science

What is Bioscience (About Bio Science)
product

shop Amazon eBay gift Zazzle
preservation.jpg


archive

Internet Archive
library

Library of Congress
lcsh

WorldCat (OAIster) Library of Congress UPenn Online Books Open Library Hathi Trust
dewey

570 Life sciences, biology Dewey Browse
578.68 Threatened species Dewey Browse
630 Agriculture and related technologies Dewey Browse
book

ISBNdb Google Books eBooks.com
participation.jpg


education

MIT OCW Biology Biology education, (BUBL LINK)
Bionerds' Biology Kingdoms Project
course

Open Education Consortium
test

Interactive tutorial and quizzes about Animal, Plant and Bacteria cells
occupation

Bioscience Careers
blog

WordPress
news

Nature, Life Sciences Science News, life ScienceDaily.com, life New Scientist, life Nature
Nature, Humans & Nature (PBS)
AAAS EurekAlert, biology Scientific American, biology PhysOrg.com, biology Plant and Animal News ScienceDaily.com, biology ScienceDaily.com, computational biology ScienceDaily.com, biochemistry ScienceDaily.com, origin of life
NPR Archives Google News
serial

Biology journals (BUBL LINK)
article

Google Scholar
resource

BioDiversity, Academic Info. (database)
organization

Biology societies (BUBL LINK)
government

USA.gov

Oldest


Photographer captures oldest living things in the world


Rachel Sussman The world's oldest living things Ted Talks


The World's Oldest Living Things (ABC News)

Oldest Living Things in the World (Rachel Sussman)

Extreme


Extreme Shrimp May Hold Clues to Alien Life (JPL)


Journey to the Centre of Earth P3
(Vast Subsurface Bacteria, Formation of Caves)



Secrets of the deep: How the mass of organisms living in undersea volcanoes and rocks could out-weigh all of the animals on the surface (Eddie Wrenn, Daily Mail Online)
Researchers find evidence of 'incredible bio-mass' around deep-sea vents.

Intimate Strangers: Unseen Life on Earth 4 Part Video Series

First detailed report defines limits of methane-exhaling microbial life in an undersea volcano (Phys.org)

Researchers Identify Mysterious Life Forms in the Extreme Deep Sea (Scripps News)

Microbe found that can use arsenic as nutrient (Randolph E. Schmid, AP Science Writer)

‘Devil Worm’ Takes Animal Life to New Depths (Brandon Keim, Wired)

Deepest-dwelling Creature Could Be 'Mephisto' (Jennifer Viegas, Discovery News)

What are Nematodes? (Nematology Lab, University of Nebraska-Lincoln)
Phylum Nemata (Nematology Lab, University of Nebraska-Lincoln)

Antarctic


Thousands Of Species Found In Lake Under Antarctic Ice


Under the ice (Nature)


Rock-Eating Microbes Found in Buried Antarctic Lake (Irene Klotz, Discovery News)
Cold, Dark and Alive! Life Discovered in Buried Antarctic Lake (Becky Oskin, Live Science)

A microbial ecosystem beneath the West Antarctic ice sheet (Nature)
Icebridge Antarctic Operation (NASA)

Vostok


New Life? Russian scientists discover unidentified bacteria


The Lost World of Lake Vostok


‘Unclassified’ Life Found in Antarctic Lake (RIA Novosti)

Crust


Scientists identify life forms in the deep layer of ocean crust


‘Parallel Universe’ of Life Described Far Beneath the Bottom of the Sea (Brandon Keim, Wired)
Life found deep under the sea: Oceanic-crust microbes survive on hydrogen and carbon dioxide (Ed Yong, Nature)

Origins


Origins of Life on Earth

Carl Sagan on chemistry of life on Earth & other planets


Revisiting 1950s Experiments for Signs of Life's Origin

Stars concoct complex molecules (Jason Palmer, BBC News)

Test Tube Yeast Evolve Multicellularity (Sarah Fecht, Scientific American)
By watching evolution in progress, scientists reveal key developments in the evolution of complex life and put evolutionary theories to the test.

Crystals?


Living Crystals of Light-Activated Colloidal Surfers


It’s (Almost) Alive! Scientists Create a Near-Living Crystal (Brandon Keim, Wired)

Simulation


L-System


The Game Of Life
Interactive Plant and Animal Cell Model
In First, Software Emulates Lifespan of Entire Organism (John Markoff, New York Times)

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Latest Headlines | Science News
Life Sciences News -- ScienceDaily
  • Improve evolution education by teaching genetics first Yesterday
    Evolution is a difficult concept for many students at all levels, however, a study has demonstrated a simple cost-free way to significantly improve students' understanding of evolution at the secondary level: teach genetics before you teach them evolution.
  • Dietary strategy to address obesity uses component in red chili Yesterday
    Scientists have discovered a dietary strategy that may address obesity by reducing endotoxemia, a major contributor to chronic, low-grade inflammation (CLGI). The researchers uncovered an interaction between dietary capsaicin (CAP), the major pungent component in red chili, and gut microbiota. This novel mechanism for the anti-obesity effect of CAP acts through prevention of microbial dysbiosis.
  • 'Pregnant' housefly males demonstrate the evolution of sex determination Yesterday
    Biologists have discovered the gene that determines the male sex in houseflies. Surprisingly, the sex-determining mechanisms are not the same for all houseflies -- they depend on where the insects live. This knowledge not only helps us better understand the evolution of sex determination, but also aids in the control of agricultural pests or carriers of disease.


    Nature
    • Part 2 | Full Episode by Eric R. Olson May 11, 2017
      They’re back! Those remote-controlled robotic cameras return to infiltrate the world of dolphins around the globe and capture behavior that has never been filmed before. This time, the Spy Creatures go underwater. Thirteen animatronic spy cameras were designed to do the job including Spy Dolphin, Spy Turtle, Spy Squid, Spy Nautilus, Spy Baby Dolphin, Spy […]The post Part 2 | Full Episode appeared first on Nature.
    • Dolphins Beach Themselves to Catch Fish by Eric R. Olson May 5, 2017
      In South Carolina, a pod of bottlenose dolphins has taken teamwork to a whole new level. As a group, they corral entire shoals of fish onto the shore and then devour as many as they can. Stranding is a serious hazard for dolphins, but this pod has mastered the technique.The post Dolphins Beach Themselves to Catch Fish appeared first on Nature.
    • Bottlenose and Humpback Dolphins Become Friends by Eric R. Olson May 4, 2017
      In Mozambique, a young dolphin that’s left his pod encounters a rare humpback dolphin. And then something extraordinary happens – they seem to be making friends. This is the first time such a peculiar partnership has ever been filmedThe post Bottlenose and Humpback Dolphins Become Friends appeared first on Nature.

    Comments on:

      EurekAlert! - Biology
      • A fresh look inside the protein nano-machines Yesterday
        (Université de Genève) Proteins perform vital functions, they digest food and fight infections. They are in fact nano-machines, each one of them designed to perform a specific task. But how did they evolve to match those needs, how did the genes encode the structure and function of proteins? Researchers from the University of Geneva, Switzerland, the Institute for Basic Science, Korea, and the Rockefeller University, United States, have conducted a study that tackles this yet un...
      • Dartmouth-led study finds heavier precipitation in the northeast began in 1996 Yesterday
        (Dartmouth College) Over the past century, the Northeast has experienced an increase in the number of storms with extreme precipitation. A Dartmouth-led study finds that the increase in extreme Northeast storms occurred as an abrupt shift in 1996, particularly in the spring and fall, rather than as a steady change over several decades. The findings were published in an early online release of the American Meteorological Society's 'Journal of Hydrometeorology.'
      • Declawing linked to aggression and other abnormal behaviors in cats Monday
        (SAGE) According to research published today in the Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery*, declawing increases the risk of long-term or persistent pain, manifesting as unwanted behaviors such as inappropriate elimination (soiling/urinating outside of the litter box) and aggression/biting.

      Scientific American
      Biology News - Evolution, Cell theory, Gene theory, Microbiology, Biotechnology
      • Weaponized penis drives sexual 'arms race' (in beetles) 49 minutes ago
        Evolution works in mysterious ways, especially when it comes to sex.
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        The Hermit Thrush is famous for its melodiously undulating song, but we know very little about whether—and if so, how—its songs vary across the large swath of North America that it calls home in the summer. A new study from The Auk: Ornithological Advances provides the first thorough overview of geographic variation in Hermit Thrush song structure and hints at how isolation and adaptation shape differences in the tunes of a learned song within a species.
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        The blue whale, which uses baleen to filter its prey from ocean water and can reach lengths of over 100 feet, is the largest vertebrate animal that has ever lived. On the list of the planet's most massive living creatures, the blue whale shares the top ranks with most other species of baleen whales alive today. According to new research from scientists at the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History, however, it was only recently in whale's evolutionary past that they became so enormous.

      Biology News -- ScienceDaily
      • Improve evolution education by teaching genetics first Yesterday
        Evolution is a difficult concept for many students at all levels, however, a study has demonstrated a simple cost-free way to significantly improve students' understanding of evolution at the secondary level: teach genetics before you teach them evolution.
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        Scientists are transforming how complex marine data from the Ocean Health Index is synthesized, communicated and used for coastal management.
      • 'Pregnant' housefly males demonstrate the evolution of sex determination Yesterday
        Biologists have discovered the gene that determines the male sex in houseflies. Surprisingly, the sex-determining mechanisms are not the same for all houseflies -- they depend on where the insects live. This knowledge not only helps us better understand the evolution of sex determination, but also aids in the control of agricultural pests or carriers of disease.

      Computational Biology News -- ScienceDaily
      • Physics may bring faster solutions for tough computational problems May 12, 2017
        Researchers have used an elegant method based on statistical mechanics -- called the vertex model -- to create more efficient algorithms to solve complex problems more quickly. The research could solve problems in machine learning, circuit optimization and other major computational challenges.
      • New method addresses reproducibility in computational experiments Apr 25, 2017
        Scientists have developed a workflow management system that addresses irreproducibility when analyzing large genomics datasets with computers. Nextflow contributes to establishing good scientific practices and provides an important framework for those research projects where the analysis of large datasets are used to take decisions, for example, in precision medicine.
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        A new computer modeling study is aimed at making epidemiological models more accessible and useful for public-health collaborators and improving disease-related decision making.

      Biochemistry Research News -- ScienceDaily
      • Improve evolution education by teaching genetics first Yesterday
        Evolution is a difficult concept for many students at all levels, however, a study has demonstrated a simple cost-free way to significantly improve students' understanding of evolution at the secondary level: teach genetics before you teach them evolution.
      • 'Pregnant' housefly males demonstrate the evolution of sex determination Yesterday
        Biologists have discovered the gene that determines the male sex in houseflies. Surprisingly, the sex-determining mechanisms are not the same for all houseflies -- they depend on where the insects live. This knowledge not only helps us better understand the evolution of sex determination, but also aids in the control of agricultural pests or carriers of disease.
      • Wolves need space to roam to control expanding coyote populations Yesterday
        Wolves and other top predators need large ranges to be able to control smaller predators whose populations have expanded, according to a new study. The results were similar across three continents, showing that as top predators' ranges were cut back and fragmented, they were no longer able to control smaller predators.

      Origin of Life News -- ScienceDaily
      • Genetic mutation trade-offs lead to parallel evolution Yesterday
        Researchers have shown how evolutionary dynamics proceed when selection acts on two traits governed by a trade-off. The results move the life sciences a step closer to understanding the full complexity of evolution at the cellular level.
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        Evidence from the age of the dinosaurs to today shows that chemical weathering of rocks is less sensitive to global temperature, and may depend on the steepness of the surface. The results call into question the role of rocks in setting our planet's temperature over millions of years.
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        Geologists have created a computer model of tectonic activity so effective that they believe it has potential to predict where earthquakes and volcanoes will occur. Scientists focused on the deep mantle and its relationship to plate tectonics.


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      Credit

      Editor Mary E. Hopper
      Contributor Neil R. Carlson


      © Cosma creator mehopper editor mehopper revised 2/10/2017 v.1.5















      1. ^ life. 2015. In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved January 11, 2015, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/life
      2. ^ biology. 2015. In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved Feburary 21, 2015, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/biology
      3. ^ life science. 2015. In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved February 21, 2015, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/life+science
      4. ^ biomass. 2015. In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved Feburary 21, 2015, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/biomass
      5. ^ Life. (2015). In Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved Feburary 21, 2015, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/life