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Mars : (1) the Roman god of war (2) the planet fourth in order from the sun and conspicuous for its red color (Mars, 2015) [1]blank.gifWebster | OneLook | Visuwords
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun in the Solar System. Named after the Roman god of war, Mars, it is often described as the "Red Planet" as the iron oxide prevalent on its surface gives it a reddish appearance. Mars is a terrestrial planet with a thin atmosphere, having surface features reminiscent both of the impact craters of the Moon and the volcanoes, valleys, deserts, and polar ice caps of Earth. The rotational period and seasonal cycles of Mars are likewise similar to those of Earth, as is the tilt that produces the seasons. Mars is the site of Olympus Mons, the highest known mountain within the Solar System, and of Valles Marineris, the largest canyon. (Mars, 2015) [2]blank.gif Wikipedia


NASA's Curiosity Mars Rover view of Mars (360 Interactive Video!)

Full-Circle Panorama Beside 'Namib Dune' on Mars (JPL/NASA)
NASA Releases 360-Degree Video Of Martian Surface (Emily Calandrelli, Tech Crunch)


solar system
star blank.gif Sun (Sol)
planets blank.gif Mercury | Venus | Earth | Mars | Jupiter | Saturn | Uranus | Neptune blank.gif
dwarf planets blank.gif Ceres | Pluto | Haumea | Makemake | Eris

satellites blank.gif Earth | Mars | Jupiter | Saturn | Uranus | Neptune blank.gif Pluto | Haumea | Eris
other objects blank.gif asteroid | comet



Symphony of Science - 'The Case for Mars'

The Nine Planets - Mars

Mars in Stunning HD

Photo Journal, Mars (NASA, JPL)
The Times on Mars (David Corcoran, New York Times)
The Beauty of Mars (Tim Ballisty, Weather.com)

These are links to resources organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. more...


Subject Specific Links

Mars Portal (Wikipedia)

OneLook Free Visuwords

Wikipedia Citizendium New World Encyclopedia

Free Internet Public Library dmoz Commercial Best of the Web

"Mars" DuckDuckGo WolframAlpha

shop Amazon eBay gift Zazzle

Library of Congress

WorldCat (OAIster) Library of Congress UPenn Online Books Open Library Hathi Trust

ISBNdb Google Books eBooks.com Barnes and Noble Amazon eBay Books

Open Education Consortium


Mars Daily New Scientist Topic Guide - Exploring Mars NPR Archives Google News

Google Scholar




Moons are called natural satellites


Mars Express Phobos 3D 2008

Solar System Exploration, Phobos (NASA)
Phobos (Wikipedia)
Phobos (Go Astronomy)


Mars Approach and Deimos Rendezvous

Solar System Exploration, Deimos (NASA)
Deimos (Wikipedia)
Deimos (Go Astronomy)



NASA: Evidence of flowing water on Mars

Evidence found of summertime water flows on Mars - study (Irene Klotz, Reuters)
NASA confirms the best-ever evidence for water on Mars (Rachel Feltman, Washington Post)

NASA finds evidence of Martian water flows (Sharon Gaudin, Computer World)
Mars Orbiter spots what appear to be flowing water during the planet's warm season.

Rover finds evidence of subsurface water on Mars (Jennifer Guevin)
Mars Water: Parts Of Red Planet's Interior As Wet As Earth's, Scientists Say (SPACE.com)
Dry ice, wetter Mars (Ron Cowen, Science News)



Tissint meteorite shows signs of past biological activity on Mars

Tissint meteorite shows signs of past biological activity on Mars

Tissint meteorite from London's Natural History Museum

Martian meteorite may contain evidence of extraterrestrial life (Michelle Starr, CNET)
NanoSIMS analysis of organic carbon from the Tissint Martian meteorite: Evidence for the past existence of subsurface organic-bearing fluids on Mars (Original Article)

Could New Rover Find Fossils on Mars? (Irene Klotz, Discovery News)
Rover "Curiosity" ups the ante in search for life beyond Earth, but can't directly detect Martian life.

Mars Methane Mystery: What's Making the Gas? (Irene Klotz, Discovery News)
Methane in Mars' atmosphere lasts less than a year meaning something -- either geologic or biological -- keeps belching it out.

Not 'life,' but maybe 'organics' on Mars (Kaufman)
Did We Meet Martians 36 Years Ago?.Analysis (Ray Villard, Discovery News)

Controversy is Rife on Mars: Transcript of Stewart Brand interviewing Carl Sagan and Lynn Margulis



Discovery Mars - Chapter 1 of 5 (Part 1 of 2)

Trip to Mars Would Turn Astronauts Into Weaklings (Wall for Space.com)

Will we be the first Martians? (Dan Vergano, USA Today)




Curiosity landed successfully!!! Watch NASA's Channel Live...
Mars Science Laboratory (JPL/NASA)

For NASA Rover Team, Many Years of Work Paid Off

NASA TV Capture of MSL Curiosity Rover Landing on Mars

Captain Kirk and Curiosity's Red Planet Landing (NASA)

Challenges of Getting to Mars: Curiosity's Seven Minutes of Terror

Next Mars Rover in Action

Mars Science Laboratory Landing Site: Gale crater

Simulated Space ‘Terror’ Offers NASA an Online Following (Kenneth Chang, New York Times)

Curiosity closes in on Mars for high-stakes descent (William Harwood, CNET)
The $2.5 billion Mars Science Laboratory rover is closing in on the Red Planet for a white-knuckle descent to the surface using an untried "sky crane" technique to ensure a pinpoint landing on the floor of Gale Crater.

Mars dust storm, minor wobble give Curiosity scientists pause (Scott Gold, Los Angeles Times)
A dust storm on Mars and a wobble in Curiosity's trajectory give scientists something to think about, but mission leaders say they're on track for a Sunday landing.

Curiosity Rover Bound for Mars' Gale Crater (Suzanne Presto, Voice of America)
Landing Site Named: Gale Crater (National Geographic)
"Beautiful" mineral-rich site may contain evidence of ancient life, scientists say.

High-Res Interactive Panorama Lets You Stand on Mars With Curiosity (Adam Mann, Wired)

Mars Curiosity Rover - Google News

Spirit & Opportunity

NASA - Five Years On Mars (Spirit
& Opportunity)

NASA releases Mars panorama shot (NewsOnABC)

Mars Panorama: Next Best Thing to Being There (Guy Webster, NASA, JPL)
Newly released NASA photo provides breathtaking view of red planet (Stacey Pounsberry, The Bunsen Burner)
Video Documents Three-Year Trek on Mars by NASA Rover (NASA JPL) See the video on NASA JPL web site: Go...
Images: Opportunity Arrives At Endeavour Crater (Jet Propulsion Laboratory)NASA makes final attempt to contact silent Mars rover, Spirit (Sharon Gaudin, ComputerWorld)

Solar System Exploration, Mars (NASA)
NASA/JPL Mars Exploration Program (Site Map)
Timeline of Mars Exploration, from 1960 to 2011 (John Matson, Scientific American)

Mars Express (European Space Agency)

Space X

SpaceX says 'reusable rocket' could help colonize Mars (Breitbart.com)
SpaceX Founder Elon Musk Wants Man to Be a Multi-Planet Species (Fox News)
A Budget Trip to Mars: SpaceX founder has plans for humans to be able to get to Mars on the cheap (Discovery News)
Colony on Mars? SpaceX Preps for Red Planet Living
Mars for the 'average person' (Jonathan Amos, BBC News)
Rocket entrepreneur Elon Musk believes he can get the cost of a round trip to Mars down to about half a million dollars.



Mars the new home for humanity and then beyond Part 1

Mars the new home for humanity and then beyond Part 2

Colonization of Mars (Wikipedia)

Mars One

Colony on Mars Set for 2023; Company Seeking Four for Trip

Mars One introduction film (Updated)

Getting humanity to Mars: Bas Lansdorp at TEDxDelft

The future of Space Travel - Bas Lansdorp, Mars One

Mars One Will Start Volunteer Search in July to Send Four People to Mars (Glen Tickle, GeekoSystem)
Mars Colony Project to Begin Astronaut Search by July (Rob Coppinger, SPACE.com)
Reality Show on Mars Could Fund Manned Colony by 2023 (Mike Wall, SPACE.com)
Mars One plans suicide mission to Red Planet for 2023 (John Brandon, Fox News)
Scientists propose one-way trips to Mars (Nicholas K. Geranios)
Trips to Mars might be a one-way ticket


Carl Sagan - On Mars & The Excluded Middle (1993)

Expedition Week: Colonizing Mars (National Geographic)

Terraforming (Wikipedia)
Terraforming of Mars (Wikipedia)


Mars500 - Mission facts (ESA)

Mars500 (Russian Federation – Institute for Bio-Medical Problems)
Mars500 (European Space Agency)
Mars500 (Wikipedia)
Earth-Based Mars500 Crew Breaks Endurance Record For Longest "Space" Mission (Rebecca Boyle, Popular Science)



Secrets of Google's 3-D Mars, Moon

NASA and Google Launch Virtual Exploration of Mars

Google Mars

NASA Opportunity Spacecraft Camera Yields Most Accurate Mars Map Ever (NASA) (Map)


We're NASA and We Know It (Mars Curiosity)

‘We’re NASA and we know it’ parody marries NASA and LMFAO for the best viral video you’ll see today (Emi Kolawole, Washington Post)

How to build your own LEGO Mars rover Curiosity (Robert Z. Pearlman, Space on MSNBC.com)
NASA engineer who worked on real rover created toy version for DIY'ers


NASA Mars Trek-NASA's new Maps for Mars with 3D view

Now you can drive around Mars with NASA's Curiosity simulator (Sean Buckley, Engadget)

Experience Curiosity (NASA/JPL)
Mars Trek (NASA/JPL)

Gear VR

Mars Is A Real Place (Gear VR)

<a href="http://www.drashvr.com/p/mars-is-real-place.html" target="_blank">Mars is a Real Place (DrashVR)</a>
<a href="https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.drashvr.marsisarealplacecb" target="_blank">Mars is a Real Place (Google Play)</a>


XBox 360 and NASA's Awesome Free Game Mars Rover Curiosity Landing

NASA Releases Mars Rover Game for Xbox 360 (Adario Strange, PCMag)


    Planet Mars - Google News
    • The First Mars Settlement Could Be Built From the Planet's Soil - Newsweek Today 6:35 am
      NewsweekThe First Mars Settlement Could Be Built From the Planet's SoilNewsweekThe prospect of a city on Mars where humans could live permanently just edged a little closer. Scientists have discovered the soil on the Red Planet can be used to make a building material stronger than steel-reinforced concrete&mdash;meaning it could be ...Scientists found a no-frills way to build on MarsUSA TODAYLIFE ON MARS: First humans to colonise Red Planet will live like THISExpress.co.ukMars-like soil can b...
    • The wreckage of a mysterious ancient planet is orbiting Mars, astronomers discover - Fox News Yesterday
      Fox NewsThe wreckage of a mysterious ancient planet is orbiting Mars, astronomers discoverFox NewsAstronomers believe fragments of a mysterious lost world are locked in orbit around Mars. This ancient planet may have smashed into the Martian surface during the early days of the solar system, creating a series of nine asteroids called the Trojans.
    • ALIEN NEWS: Is this 'footprint' on Mars evidence something has ... - Express.co.uk Tuesday
      Express.co.ukALIEN NEWS: Is this 'footprint' on Mars evidence something has ...Express.co.ukA 'FOOTPRINT' has been found on the surface of Mars in an image taken by the NASA Curiosity Rover, it was claimed today.'Ancient tree stump' spotted on Mars?Fox NewsUFO hunter claims to have spotted an 'ancient tree stump' on MarsAOLUFO hunter claims 'Martian tree' seen on Mars in Curiosity Rover footage is sign of life on red planetMirror.co.ukSpace.com&nbsp;-Toronto Sun&nbsp;-Newsmax&nbsp;-UFO Sighti...
    • Mars Trojans may be part of a planet that was destroyed long ago ... - New Scientist Tuesday
      New ScientistMars Trojans may be part of a planet that was destroyed long ago ...New ScientistNine asteroids that trail the Red Planet contain a material usually only formed in the mantle of rocky planets.and more&nbsp;&raquo;
    • Donald Trump wants to put humans on Mars in three years, President announces in ISS livestream - The Independent Monday
      The IndependentDonald Trump wants to put humans on Mars in three years, President announces in ISS livestreamThe Independentmars.jpg person dressed as an alien attends the Mars Encounter exhibit at the Chabot Space and Science Center August 26, 2003 in Oakland, California. Hundreds of astronomy enthusiasts visited the Chabot Space Center in hopes of viewing the red planet&nbsp;...Trump wants NASA to send humans to Mars pronto &mdash; by his second term 'at worst'Washington PostTrump's exubera...

    © Cosma creator mehopper editor mehopper revised 11/15/2016 v.1.5

    1. ^ Mars. (2015). In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary (11th ed.). Retrieved June 21, 2015, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/Mars
    2. ^ Mars. (2015). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved June 21, 2015, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mars