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Cosma arrow.gif communication arrow.gif knowledge arrow.gif form arrow.gif innovation arrow.gif science
science : (1) a department of systematized knowledge as an object of study (2) knowledge or a system of knowledge covering general truths or the operation of general laws especially as obtained and tested through scientific method (science, 2015) [1] blank.gif Webster | OneLook | Visuwords See also Access Science (McGraw-Hill)
Humans are a doggedly curious species, and science provides our most powerful means for understanding the physical universe. Science is a great human adventure, with formidable challenges and priceless rewards, unimagined opportunities and un-paralleled responsibilities. Science lets us view the world with new eyes, exploring backward in time, looking outward through space, and discovering unity in the workings of the cosmos. Armed with that knowledge we can combat disease, create new materials, and shape our environment in marvelous ways. Science also gives us the means to predict the consequences of our actions and perhaps, with wisdom, to save us from ourselves.” Science Matters: Achieving Scientific Literacy (Hazen & Trefil, p. 278, 1991) [2]
Related

innovation blank.gif creativity | process | equipment
science blank.gif discovery | research
applicationblank.gif invention | intellectual property | standard
commerce blank.gif entrepreneurship | product

See also mathematics

Spotlight


Symphony of Science - The Poetry of Reality (An Anthem for Science)


Symphony of Science - 'We Are All Connected' (Sagan, Feynman, Tyson & Nye)


Experiences


Museum

Science Comes Alive at The Mind Museum


List of Museums (Wikipedia)

DIY

DIY 3 Amazing Science Experiments


More DIY Science on YouTube...
DIY Projects (Popular Science)
DIY Science Projects (Pinterest)

SecondLife

These resources require SecondLife (SL) and some use SLurls. Learn more...

Science & Technology (Destination Guide)

Explorer Island in Second Life


JPL's Explorer Island (Destination Guide)
JPL's Explorer Island (SLurl)

Exploratorium in Second Life


Exploratorium Island (Destination Guide)
Exploratorium Island (SLurl)

Resources


These are links to resources organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. more...

Type

Subject Specific Links
general.jpg


portal

The Lab (ABC Science) Science Portal (Wikipedia)
reference

Library of Congress, Science Reference Services
Science Information Sources (RefDesk)
Scientific Reference Resources (dmoz Open Directory Project)[[@http://botw.org/top/Science/Reference/|Science Reference Sources (Best of the Web)
dictionary

Science Dictionaries (Best of the Web)
glossary

UCMP Glossary, Sciences
encyclopedia

ISCID Encyclopedia of Science & Philosophy Access Science Encyclopedia of Science & Technology Online ScienceZine New World Encyclopedia Wikipedia
classification

Branches of Science (ScienceZine)
theory

Importance of Theory in Science, How Stuff Works
philosophy

Philosophy of Science Portal (Wikipedia)
Philosophy of Science (Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
The Philosphy-Science Continuum (Howard Gardner, Chronicle of Higher Education)
directory

Specific Science & Technology Resources (Internet Public Library)
Science and Technology Directory (RefDesk)
Dewey 500 Natural sciences and mathematics (BUBL LINK)
Free dmoz Commercial Best of the Web
search

"science" DuckDuckGo WolframAlpha
innovation.jpg

SciTalks, Smart People on Cool Topics
creativity

Fleeting Youth, Fading Creativity (Jonah Lehrer, Wall Street Journal) Creativity in Science & Engineering (Ronald B. Standler)
mathematics

Science & Maths: See Where They Can Take You (FutureMorph)
science

Hard to find: Why it’s increasingly difficult to make discoveries and other insights from the science of science
Science of Science and Innovation Policy (SciSIP, NSF.gov)
Collaboration: the mother of invention (Carolyn Y. Johnson, Boston Globe)
discovery

100 Greatest Discoveries (Science Channel) Scientific Discoveries News (Discovery Channel)
research

The Scientific Method (ScienceZine)
ScienceResearch.com
application

Applied Science (Wikipedia)
product

shop Amazon eBay gift Zazzle
preservation.jpg


history

History of Science (ScienceZine) History of science (Scientific American) History of Science Sourcebook
History of Science (Wikipedia)
timeline

Science Timeline.net
museum

Museo Galileo - Institute and Museum of the History of Science
Exploratorium The museum of science, art and human perception , San Francisco
Museum of Science, Boston
archive

Internet Archive
library

National Science Digital Library (NSDL) Library of Congress
lcsh

WorldCat (OAIster) Library of Congress UPenn Online Books Open Library Hathi Trust
dewey

500 Natural sciences and mathematics Dewey Browse
book

ISBNdb Google Books eBooks.com
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education

Bill Nye, The Science Guy (Site) Bill Nye, The Science Guy (YouTube) NOVA, Teachers Science Education.gov Try Science Iron Science Teacher (Exploratorium)
National Science Education Standards (National Academies Press)
course

Open Education Consortium
trivia

Quiz on science (Fun Trivia)
career

Science Careers (Best Information on the Net)
organization

American Association for the Advancement of Science
expert

Scientific American, Ask the Experts Ask the Scientist
blog

WordPress
preprint

The University of Pittsburgh's PhilSci Archive allows preview new papers about the philosophy of science PhilSci, Official Site
news

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Journals (AAAS) Science News (AAAS)
Nova Science Now (PBS) Nature Scientific American (Site Map) Popular Science
Science News (Society for Science & The Public) Science Daily New Scientist SciCentral Science Direct, Journals
NPR Archives Google News
The Why Files, The Science Behind the News
article

Google Scholar
government

Science.gov: Gateway to US Federal Science USA.gov
agency

National Science Foundation
expression.jpg


play

Science Playground Science Toys & Games, Amazon
game

The Wright Stuff, Popular Science Article about Spore


The Science Behind Spore

literature

Bartleby
song

Math And Science Song Search
folklore

Folklore of Science
bizarre

ScienceDaily.com, strange science Bizarre Things You Can Make In Your Kitchen

NKS


A New Kind of Science - Stephen Wolfram


Stephen Wolfram: A New Kind of Science (Official Site)
A New Kind of Science (Wikipedia)

Stephen Wolfram: Computing a theory of everything


Visualization


TEDxBoston - Felice Frankel -- More Than Pretty Pictures


On the Surface of Things, Images of the Extraordinary in Science (Frankel & Whitesides, 2008) [3] Felice Frankel's Home Page

Gallery: 10 Stunning Science Visualizations (Wired)

Arts


IMAX Film Advances Science


Fun


They Might Be Giants - Science is Real


Science Is Real (They Might Be Giants)


See more They Might Be Giants Science Videos on YouTube...

They Might Be Giants, Here Comes Science CD+DVD (Amazon)

Humor


Last Week Tonight with John Oliver: Scientific Studies (HBO)


HBO's John Oliver Just Debunked Most of the Scientific Studies You've Heard About (Chris Lee, Fortune)

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Science News - UPI.com

    Science: Current Issue
    • [New Products] New Products by Science Magazine (mailto:soleditor@aaas.org) Feb 16, 2017
      A weekly roundup of information on newly offered instrumentation, apparatus, and laboratory materials of potential interest to researchers.
    • [Editorial] Data in public health by Jeremy Berg Feb 16, 2017
      In 1854, physician John Snow helped curtail a cholera outbreak in a London neighborhood by mapping cases and identifying a central public water pump as the potential source. This event is considered by many to represent the founding of modern epidemiology. Data and analysis play an increasingly important role in public health today. This can be illustrated by examining the rise in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), where data from varied sources highlight potential factors wh...
    • [Editors' Choice] Electrical detection of diamond defects by Ian S. Osborne Feb 16, 2017
      Author: Ian S. Osborne
    • [In Brief] News at a glance by Science Magazine (mailto:soleditor@aaas.org) Feb 16, 2017
      In science news around the world, NASA selects three finalist landing sites for its next Mars rover, several animal welfare organizations sue the U.S. Department of Agriculture over the removal of thousands of documents from its website, a U.K. cancer charity announces up to £71 million in awards to four research teams tackling daunting problems in cancer research, Boston University neuroscientists push back against demands from the National Hockey League to release data from deceased players...
    • [This Week in Science] Passivating traps in perovskites by Phil Szuromi Feb 16, 2017
      Author: Phil Szuromi
    • [In Depth] European gravitational wave detector falters by Daniel Clery Feb 16, 2017
      On 20 February, dignitaries will descend on Virgo, Europe's premier gravitational wave detector near Pisa, Italy, for a dedication ceremony to celebrate a 5-year, €24 million upgrade. But the pomp will belie nagging problems that are likely to keep Virgo from joining its U.S. counterpart, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO), in a hunt for gravitational wave sources that was meant to start next month. What has hobbled the 3-kilometer-long observatory: glass threads j...
    • [Report] Seagrass ecosystems reduce exposure to bacterial pathogens of humans, fishes, and invertebrates by Joleah B. Lamb Feb 16, 2017
      Plants are important in urban environments for removing pathogens and improving water quality. Seagrass meadows are the most widespread coastal ecosystem on the planet. Although these plants are known to be associated with natural biocide production, they have not been evaluated for their ability to remove microbiological contamination. Using amplicon sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene, we found that when seagrass meadows are present, there was a 50% reduction in the relative abundance ...
    • [In Depth] Demise of stream rule won't revitalize coal industry by Warren Cornwall Feb 16, 2017
      Environmentalists were outraged earlier this month after the Republican-led Congress used an obscure law to erase a new regulation aimed at reducing the environmental damage caused by coal mining. The votes to undo the so-called stream protection rule, released last month on President Barack Obama's last day in office, were "a disgraceful opening salvo from this Congress, as they begin to try and do the bidding of big polluters," Michael Brune, executive director of the San Francisc...
    • [This Week in Science] Understanding insulin release by Stella M. Hurtley Feb 16, 2017
      Author: Stella M. Hurtley
    • [In Depth] Congress sharpens its regulatory ax by Science News Staff Feb 16, 2017
      Other rules that Congress could cancel using the Congressional Review Act include the following. Methane leaks: The House of Representatives has voted to undo a rule aimed at cutting leaks and burning of methane, a potent global warming gas, from drilling operations on public lands managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM). Land use planning: The House has also voted to repeal a BLM land use planning rule that critics say is too unfriendly to development and agriculture. Air polluti...
    • [Editors' Choice] Cracking the code underlying snowslides by Brent Grocholski Feb 16, 2017
      Author: Brent Grocholski
    • [In Depth] A yellow light for embryo editing by Jocelyn Kaiser Feb 16, 2017
      Editing the DNA of a human embryo could be ethically allowable in limited circumstances, says a report released this week by a committee convened by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Medicine in Washington, D.C. Such experiments "might be permitted, but only following much more research" on risks and benefits, and "only for compelling reasons and under strict oversight," the group concludes. Those situations could be limited to couples who b...
    • [Research Article] Observation of the Wigner-Huntington transition to metallic hydrogen by Ranga P. Dias Feb 16, 2017
      Producing metallic hydrogen has been a great challenge in condensed matter physics. Metallic hydrogen may be a room-temperature superconductor and metastable when the pressure is released and could have an important impact on energy and rocketry. We have studied solid molecular hydrogen under pressure at low temperatures. At a pressure of 495 gigapascals, hydrogen becomes metallic, with reflectivity as high as 0.91. We fit the reflectance using a Drude free-electron model to determine the pla...
    • [In Depth] Drop in foreign applicants worries engineering schools by Jeffrey Mervis Feb 16, 2017
      Amid the uncertainty over U.S. immigration policy, one fact is sending a chill through U.S. higher education: Some U.S. graduate programs in engineering, Science has learned, are seeing a sharp drop this year in the number of applications from international students. University administrators worry that the declines, as much as 30% from 2016 levels in some programs, reflect heightened fears among foreign-born students that the United States is tightening its borders. Given the timing, the off...
    • [Report] GTPase activity–coupled treadmilling of the bacterial tubulin FtsZ organizes septal cell wall synthesis by Xinxing Yang Feb 16, 2017
      The bacterial tubulin FtsZ is the central component of the cell division machinery, coordinating an ensemble of proteins involved in septal cell wall synthesis to ensure successful constriction. How cells achieve this coordination is unknown. We found that in Escherichia coli cells, FtsZ exhibits dynamic treadmilling predominantly determined by its guanosine triphosphatase activity. The treadmilling dynamics direct the processive movement of the septal cell wall synthesis machinery but do not...
    • [In Depth] Easier cure for resistant TB by Jon Cohen Feb 16, 2017
      A new treatment strategy has had astonishing success against extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR TB), which kills more than 70% of patients. XDR and other drug-resistant forms of TB are burgeoning among people with HIV, and current treatments are so prolonged and toxic that many patients fail to adhere to them. But a small study now shows that a simpler, safer regimen can cure the disease. Called Nix-TB, the trial has had 34 people in South Africa with XDR on three antibiotics that h...
    • [This Week in Science] Touchdown for gut pathogen virulence by Caroline Ash Feb 16, 2017
      Author: Caroline Ash
    • [In Depth] Parasitic worm may trigger mystery nodding syndrome by Gretchen Vogel Feb 16, 2017
      Between 1990 and 2013, thousands of children in war-torn South Sudan and northern Uganda suddenly developed a severe and puzzling form of epilepsy. When exposed to food or cold temperatures, affected children nodded their heads uncontrollably. Over time the seizures often worsened, leaving the children severely disabled. Many died of malnutrition, accidents, or secondary infections. The outbreak triggered an intense hunt for the cause, but searches for viruses, bacteria, environmental toxins,...
    • [This Week in Science] Hydroamination gets a light push uphill by Jake Yeston Feb 16, 2017
      Author: Jake Yeston
    • [In Depth] Failed spinal cord trial offers cautionary tale by Kelly Servick Feb 16, 2017
      Eight months after cell therapy company StemCells Inc. announced the failure of its closely watched clinical trial for spinal cord injury, some of the company's longtime academic collaborators have come forward with disheartening animal data—and an admonition for future trials. Researchers at the University of California, Irvine, found no benefit to the company's human neural stem cell product, derived from fetal tissue, in mice with damage to the upper spine. In a paper published this week i...
    • [This Week in Science] An encephalitis-boosting microRNA by John F. Foley Feb 16, 2017
      Author: John F. Foley
    • [Feature] The Birth of CRISPR Inc by Jon Cohen Feb 16, 2017
      Just 5 years ago, the community of researchers studying CRISPR, the powerful new genome editing tool, was small. When the first inklings that CRISPR could become a big business emerged, leading scientists expected to work together. But the attempt at unity collapsed—with a good deal of noise and dust. As the science grew even more compelling and venture capital (VC) beckoned, the jockeying to start CRISPR companies became intense. The research community was rent apart by concerns about intell...
    • [Editors' Choice] Dissecting the effects of APOE by Stella M. Hurtley Feb 16, 2017
      Author: Stella M. Hurtley
    • [Perspective] Sweet relief for pollinators by Carlos Martinez del Rio Feb 16, 2017
      During the first half of Earth's history, oxygen supplies were scant. Photosynthesis probably evolved soon after the appearance of life, but it was not until 2.4 to 2.1 billion years ago that photosynthetic organisms invented the ability to use water as an electron donor and began to produce molecular oxygen (O2) as a waste product. The production of O2 and its accumulation in the atmosphere facilitated the evolution of complex multicellular organisms; there are no exclusively anaerobic multi...
    • [Editors' Choice] A less structured way to better hydrogels by Marc S. Lavine Feb 16, 2017
      Author: Marc S. Lavine
    • [Perspective] Relief for retinal neurons under pressure by Jonathan Crowston Feb 16, 2017
      Advancing age predisposes us to a number of neurodegenerative diseases, yet the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. With some 70 million individuals affected, glaucoma is the world's leading cause of irreversible blindness. Glaucoma is characterized by the selective loss of retinal ganglion cells that convey visual messages from the photoreceptive retina to the brain. Age is a major risk factor for glaucoma, with disease incidence increasing near exponentially with increasing age. Tr...
    • [Report] Efficient and stable solution-processed planar perovskite solar cells via contact passivation by Hairen Tan Feb 16, 2017
      Planar perovskite solar cells (PSCs) made entirely via solution processing at low temperatures (<150°C) offer promise for simple manufacturing, compatibility with flexible substrates, and perovskite-based tandem devices. However, these PSCs require an electron-selective layer that performs well with similar processing. We report a contact-passivation strategy using chlorine-capped TiO2 colloidal nanocrystal film that mitigates interfacial recombination and improves interface binding in...
    • [Perspective] Fighting the enemy within by Evelina Tacconelli Feb 16, 2017
      The dynamic microbiota that populate all human body surfaces affect health and disease in complex and often subtle ways. At the same time, human gastrointestinal and respiratory tract microbiota are the reservoirs for most of the human pathogens that cause invasive bacterial infections. Antibiotic resistance in such pathogens has dramatically increased in recent years, resulting in infections that are much more difficult to treat (1, 2). To counter this rise, research and development efforts ...
    • [Report] Host cell attachment elicits posttranscriptional regulation in infecting enteropathogenic bacteria by Naama Katsowich Feb 16, 2017
      The mechanisms by which pathogens sense the host and respond by remodeling gene expression are poorly understood. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), the cause of severe intestinal infection, employs a type III secretion system (T3SS) to inject effector proteins into intestinal epithelial cells. These effectors subvert host cell processes to promote bacterial colonization. We show that the T3SS also functions to sense the host cell and to trigger in response posttranscriptional remodeli...
    • [Perspective] Illuminating amination by Travis L. Buchanan Feb 16, 2017
      Amines, molecules containing carbon-nitrogen (C–N) bonds, are among the most common and biologically important molecules in organic chemistry; 84% of small-molecule pharmaceuticals contain at least one C–N bond (1). Hydroamination, the direct addition of an N–H bond across a carbon-carbon double or triple bond, represents an ideal approach for the synthesis of amines (2). Despite extensive research over the past several decades, the efficient and direct intermolecular hydroamination of unacti...
    • [Report] DNA damage is a pervasive cause of sequencing errors, directly confounding variant identification by Lixin Chen Feb 16, 2017
      Mutations in somatic cells generate a heterogeneous genomic population and may result in serious medical conditions. Although cancer is typically associated with somatic variations, advances in DNA sequencing indicate that cell-specific variants affect a number of phenotypes and pathologies. Here, we show that mutagenic damage accounts for the majority of the erroneous identification of variants with low to moderate (1 to 5%) frequency. More important, we found signatures of damage in most se...
    • [Perspective] Dwarf planet Ceres and the ingredients of life by Michael Küppers Feb 16, 2017
      A fundamental question in the evolution of the early Earth is the origin of the oceans and of some of the organic molecules that were required for the formation of life. Earth formed in the protoplanetary disk, a mixture of gas and dust. At the location of Earth, temperatures were too high for water vapor and some more volatile organic components to condense. This led to the idea that those materials may have been delivered to Earth by asteroids and/or comets from the outer solar system. Rece...
    • [Research Article] Lipid transport by TMEM24 at ER–plasma membrane contacts regulates pulsatile insulin secretion by Joshua A. Lees Feb 16, 2017
      Insulin is released by β cells in pulses regulated by calcium and phosphoinositide signaling. Here, we describe how transmembrane protein 24 (TMEM24) helps coordinate these signaling events. We showed that TMEM24 is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)–anchored membrane protein whose reversible localization to ER-plasma membrane (PM) contacts is governed by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in response to oscillations in cytosolic calcium. A lipid-binding module in TMEM24 transports the phosphat...
    • [Perspective] Fibroblasts become fat to reduce scarring by Charles K. F. Chan Feb 16, 2017
      Following cutaneous injury in adult mammals, one of two outcomes can occur: successful healing with scar formation or nonsuccessful healing and a chronic wound. In humans, scar formation can be classified in terms of “normal scar” formation versus pathologically increased fibrosis, as seen in hypertrophic scarring and keloids (1). Although scarring does not look or function like surrounding unwounded skin, it allows one to survive injury (and hence, procreate). However, extensive scarring fro...
    • [This Week in Science] Peak HIV viremia pushes CD8+ T cells by Lindsey Pujanandez Feb 16, 2017
      Author: Lindsey Pujanandez
    • [Perspective] Oliver Smithies (1925–2017) by Aziz Sancar Feb 16, 2017
      Oliver Smithies passed away on 10 January 2017, at the age of 91, in Chapel Hill, North Carolina. On that day, the world lost a legendary scientist, and I lost a colleague, collaborator, and friend. Smithies began his career as a physical biochemist and transitioned into genetics, earning a share of a Nobel Prize for his work in 2007. His interests and talents were wide ranging. In addition to his research, he rode motorcycles as a young man, sang in professional choirs throughout his life, a...
    • [This Week in Science] Host-pathogen point-counterpoint by Pamela J. Hines Feb 16, 2017
      Author: Pamela J. Hines
    • [Policy Forum] Ensuring scientific integrity in the Age of Trump by Gretchen T. Goldman Feb 16, 2017
      With the new Donald J. Trump Administration comes uncertainty in the role that science will play in the U.S. federal government. Early indications that the Administration plans to distort or disregard science and evidence, coupled with the chaos and confusion occurring within federal agencies, now imperil the effectiveness of our government. Evidence from the past 20 years demonstrates that, when faced with such threats, supporters of science can take steps to protect the integrity of science...
    • [This Week in Science] Hair follicles: Secret to prevent scars? by Beverly A. Purnell Feb 16, 2017
      Author: Beverly A. Purnell
    • [Policy Forum] CRISPR, surrogate licensing, and scientific discovery by Jorge L. Contreras Feb 16, 2017
      Several institutions are embroiled in a legal dispute over the foundational patent rights to CRISPR-Cas9 gene-editing technology, and it may take years for their competing claims to be resolved (1–4). But even before ownership of the patents is finalized, the institutions behind CRISPR have wasted no time capitalizing on the huge market for this groundbreaking technology by entering into a series of license agreements with commercial enterprises (see the figure). With respect to the potential...
    • [This Week in Science] Being selective in fighting infection by Julia Fahrenkamp-Uppenbrink Feb 16, 2017
      Author: Julia Fahrenkamp-Uppenbrink
    • [Book Review] The tie that binds by Joseph Swift Feb 16, 2017
      We often need different scientific fields to work together to make sense of the world.  But for multidisciplinary approaches to work, a common ground first needs to exist between fields. Historian Peter Watson's new book, Convergence, sheds light on what can be gained when research areas come together, chronicling a series of major scientific milestones that span the past two centuries. Author: Joseph Swift
    • [This Week in Science] Missing meadows fail to mop up microbes by Caroline Ash Feb 16, 2017
      Author: Caroline Ash
    • [Book Review] Building the future by Donna Riley Feb 16, 2017
      Engineering has an image problem. The phrase "engineering disaster" rolls off the tongue, while great technical achievements are more often heralded as "scientific miracles." Enter Dream Big. Sponsored by the American Society of Civil Engineers with support from Bechtel Corporation, the film sets out to reframe engineering as a force for good and a profession in service to people and the planet. Author: Donna Riley
    • [Editors' Choice] Scientific curiosity versus polarization by Barbara R. Jasny Feb 16, 2017
      Author: Barbara R. Jasny
    • [Letter] U.S. immigration ban undermines scientists by Mohamed Hassan Feb 16, 2017
      Author: Mohamed Hassan
    • [Editors' Choice] Vocalizations channeled by developmental affordances by Pamela J. Hines Feb 16, 2017
      Author: Pamela J. Hines
    • [Letter] Maternal antibodies' role in immunity by Hilmar Lemke Feb 16, 2017
      Author: Hilmar Lemke
    • [Editors' Choice] Strengthening the remaining synapses by Peter Stern Feb 16, 2017
      Author: Peter Stern
    • [Letter] Maternal antibodies' role in immunity—Response by Katelyn M. Gostic Feb 16, 2017
      Authors: Katelyn M. Gostic, Monique Ambrose, Michael Worobey, James O. Lloyd-Smith
    • [Research Article] A paralogous decoy protects Phytophthora sojae apoplastic effector PsXEG1 from a host inhibitor by Zhenchuan Ma Feb 16, 2017
      The extracellular space (apoplast) of plant tissue represents a critical battleground between plants and attacking microbes. Here we show that a pathogen-secreted apoplastic xyloglucan-specific endoglucanase, PsXEG1, is a focus of this struggle in the Phytophthora sojae–soybean interaction. We show that soybean produces an apoplastic glucanase inhibitor protein, GmGIP1, that binds to PsXEG1 to block its contribution to virulence. P. sojae, however, secretes a paralogous PsXEG1-like protein, P...
    • [This Week in Science] Organic compounds detected on Ceres by Keith T. Smith Feb 16, 2017
      Author: Keith T. Smith
    • [Report] Localized aliphatic organic material on the surface of Ceres by M. C. De Sanctis Feb 16, 2017
      Organic compounds occur in some chondritic meteorites, and their signatures on solar system bodies have been sought for decades. Spectral signatures of organics have not been unambiguously identified on the surfaces of asteroids, whereas they have been detected on cometary nuclei. Data returned by the Visible and InfraRed Mapping Spectrometer on board the Dawn spacecraft show a clear detection of an organic absorption feature at 3.4 micrometers on dwarf planet Ceres. This signature is charact...
    • [This Week in Science] Hypoxic conditioning of immune cells by Angela Colmone Feb 16, 2017
      Author: Angela Colmone
    • [Report] Catalytic intermolecular hydroaminations of unactivated olefins with secondary alkyl amines by Andrew J. Musacchio Feb 16, 2017
      The intermolecular hydroamination of unactivated alkenes with simple dialkyl amines remains an unsolved problem in organic synthesis. We report a catalytic protocol for efficient additions of cyclic and acyclic secondary alkyl amines to a wide range of alkyl olefins with complete anti-Markovnikov regioselectivity. In this process, carbon-nitrogen bond formation proceeds through a key aminium radical cation intermediate that is generated via electron transfer between an excited-state iridium p...
    • [This Week in Science] Coordinating cell wall synthesis and cell division by Stella M. Hurtley Feb 16, 2017
      Author: Stella M. Hurtley
    • [Report] Hawkmoths use nectar sugar to reduce oxidative damage from flight by E. Levin Feb 16, 2017
      Nectar-feeding animals have among the highest recorded metabolic rates. High aerobic performance is linked to oxidative damage in muscles. Antioxidants in nectar are scarce to nonexistent. We propose that nectarivores use nectar sugar to mitigate the oxidative damage caused by the muscular demands of flight. We found that sugar-fed moths had lower oxidative damage to their flight muscle membranes than unfed moths. Using respirometry coupled with δ13C analyses, we showed that moths generate an...
    • [This Week in Science] Stamping hydrogen into metal by Brent Grocholski Feb 16, 2017
      Author: Brent Grocholski
    • [Report] Treadmilling by FtsZ filaments drives peptidoglycan synthesis and bacterial cell division by Alexandre W. Bisson-Filho Feb 16, 2017
      The mechanism by which bacteria divide is not well understood. Cell division is mediated by filaments of FtsZ and FtsA (FtsAZ) that recruit septal peptidoglycan-synthesizing enzymes to the division site. To understand how these components coordinate to divide cells, we visualized their movements relative to the dynamics of cell wall synthesis during cytokinesis. We found that the division septum was built at discrete sites that moved around the division plane. FtsAZ filaments treadmilled circ...
    • [This Week in Science] Sugar rush by Sacha Vignieri Feb 16, 2017
      Author: Sacha Vignieri
    • [Report] Regeneration of fat cells from myofibroblasts during wound healing by Maksim V. Plikus Feb 16, 2017
      Although regeneration through the reprogramming of one cell lineage to another occurs in fish and amphibians, it has not been observed in mammals. We discovered in the mouse that during wound healing, adipocytes regenerate from myofibroblasts, a cell type thought to be differentiated and nonadipogenic. Myofibroblast reprogramming required neogenic hair follicles, which triggered bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling and then activation of adipocyte transcription factors expressed during ...
    • [This Week in Science] When is a mutation a true genetic variant? by Laura M. Zahn Feb 16, 2017
      Author: Laura M. Zahn
    • [Report] Vitamin B3 modulates mitochondrial vulnerability and prevents glaucoma in aged mice by Pete A. Williams Feb 16, 2017
      Glaucomas are neurodegenerative diseases that cause vision loss, especially in the elderly. The mechanisms initiating glaucoma and driving neuronal vulnerability during normal aging are unknown. Studying glaucoma-prone mice, we show that mitochondrial abnormalities are an early driver of neuronal dysfunction, occurring before detectable degeneration. Retinal levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+, a key molecule in energy and redox metabolism) decrease with age and render aging neu...
    • [This Week in Science] Vitamin B3 protects mice from glaucoma by Priscilla Kelly Feb 16, 2017
      Author: Priscilla Kelly
    • [Working Life] The America I believe in by Hilal A. Lashuel Feb 16, 2017
      Author: Hilal A. Lashuel

    NOVA scienceNOW | PBS
    Nature
    • Dolphins Behaving Badly by Eric R. Olson Saturday
      Teenage male dolphins are notoriously ill-behaved. A ‘Spy Turtle’ and ‘Spy Pufferfish’ keep tabs on all of their bad behavior.The post Dolphins Behaving Badly appeared first on Nature.
    • Skua Steals ‘Spy Egg’ by Eric R. Olson Saturday
      Skuas are large sea birds that have a talent for poaching eggs. Go along for the ride as a skua grabs what it thinks is a penguin egg, but is really a hidden ‘spy camera’.The post Skua Steals ‘Spy Egg’ appeared first on Nature.
    • Episode 3 | Friendship by Eric R. Olson Feb 15, 2017
      Spy Creatures and their new wild friends rely on each other to look out for predators. A Spy Meerkat babysits meerkat pups while a Spy Cobra pretends to attack the mob. Spy Crocs witness a convenient partnership between real crocodiles and birds.The post Episode 3 | Friendship appeared first on Nature.
    • Spy Bushbaby’s Funniest Moments by Eric R. Olson Feb 13, 2017
      “Spy in the Wild” series producer Matt Gordon recounts the humorous behavior of some wild chimps as they interacted with an animatronic bushbaby.The post Spy Bushbaby’s Funniest Moments appeared first on Nature.
    • Is the Dikkop the Bravest Bird in the World? by Eric R. Olson Feb 9, 2017
      The water dikkop (Burhinus vermiculatus) locates its nest close to the nest of the Nile crocodile for protection from other predators. However, Nile crocs are extremely territorial and being in such close proximity leads to some feather-raising situations.The post Is the Dikkop the Bravest Bird in the World? appeared first on Nature.
    • Fearless Meerkat Takes on ‘Spy Cobra’ by Eric R. Olson Feb 9, 2017
      Meerkat sentries protect the group by keeping a watch out for potential predators. A female sentry spots a cobra and tries to run it off. Little does she know, the ‘cobra’ is actually a sophisticated fake outfitted with a hidden camera.The post Fearless Meerkat Takes on ‘Spy Cobra’ appeared first on Nature.
    • Episode 2 | Intelligence by Eric R. Olson Feb 8, 2017
      Spy Creatures infiltrate the world of animal intelligence, ingenuity, and creativity. Watch our spies disguised as animals observe a gray squirrel stealing Spy Nut, a sea otter cracking open a meal, and an orangutan washing with soap.The post Episode 2 | Intelligence appeared first on Nature.
    • Episode 1 | Love by Eric R. Olson Feb 1, 2017
      Spy Creatures explore the rarely seen emotions of animals, revealing if they are as strong and complex as our own. Join the “spycams” as they are accepted into a wild dog pack, witness elephant love, and are mourned by a troop of monkeys.The post Episode 1 | Love appeared first on Nature.

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