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Cosma arrow.gif communication arrow.gif knowledge arrow.gif realm arrow.gif terrestrial arrow.gif life arrow.gif microorganism arrow.gif virus

virus : any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as extremely simple microorganisms or as extremely complex molecules, that typically contain a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material but no semipermeable membrane, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in humans, lower animals, or plants (virus, 2015) [1]blank.gifWebster | OneLook | Visuwords


Scientists Discover 'Frankenvirus' in Siberian Tundra

30,000-Year-Old Virus Found In Siberia

Ancient squirrel's nest leads to discovery of giant virus (Jen Christensen, CNN.com)
In-depth study of Mollivirus sibericum, a new 30,000-y-old giant virus infecting Acanthamoeba (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America)
Mollivirus (Wikipedia)

Earlier, March 2014

A 30,000-Year-Old Virus has Come Back to Life (Mar 4, 2014)

30,000-year-old giant virus 'comes back to life' (Rebecca Morelle, BBC News)
Scientists dig up giant virus more than 30,000 years old in SiberiaBy Jethro Mullen, CNN

Giant Viruses Are Ancient Living Organisms (U. of Ill., Laboratory Equipment)


blank.gifmicroorganismblank.gif virus blank.gif archaea blank.gif prokaryote (bacteria) blank.gif mitochondria, chlorophlast
blank.gifeukaryote blank.gifplant algae blank.gifnot plant or animal protist, fungi, lichen blank.gifanimal protozoa, amoeba

blank.gifmicroscope blank.gif Linnaean system blank.gifmorphologyblank.gifanatomyblank.gifphysiology blank.gif cellblank.gifgeneblank.gifevolutionblank.giffossil


Flu Attack! How A Virus Invades Your Body

Beauty of Nature - Viruses

BBC: The threat of Drug Resistant Viruses
CDC: Antiviral Drug-Resistance among Influenza Viruses
World Health Organization: Influenza Monitoring Page (with map)

Center For Disease Control: Reconstruction of the 1918 Influenza Pandemic Virus

These are links to resources organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. more...


Subject Specific Links

OneLook Merriam-Webster Free Wiktionary Visuwords

virus, Wikipedia, virology, Wikipedia MicrobeWiki: Viral BiorealmCitizendium New World Encyclopedia

Tree of Life Web Project, Viruses

Specific Dewey 579.2 Viruses and subviral organisms (BUBL LINK)
Free Internet Public Library dmoz Commercial Best of the Web

"virus" DuckDuckGo WolframAlpha

Library of Congress

WorldCat (OAIster) Library of Congress UPenn Online Books Open Library Hathi Trust

ISBNdb Google Books eBooks.com Barnes and Noble Amazon eBay Books

Open Education Consortium


ScienceDaily.com, viruses
NPR Archives Google News

Google Scholar



Should You Worry About Measles?

Doctors Work to Contain Measles Outbreak Before Super Bowl

Measles (CDC)
Measles Fact Sheet (WHO)
The History of Vaccines (The College of Physicians of Philadelphia)
Measles (Wikipedia)

Measles Outbreak 2015 - Google News
  • SD Doctor Stresses Importance Of Vaccines Following Measles Outbreak In Minnesota - KDLT News Yesterday
    KDLT NewsSD Doctor Stresses Importance Of Vaccines Following Measles Outbreak In MinnesotaKDLT NewsIn 2014, South Dakota saw 13 cases of the measles and one more case in 2015. Now Minnesota is dealing with their own outbreak. The state Health Department there has confirmed 24 cases and almost all of them have something in common. Those infected ...Vaccine gaps 'cause measles outbreaks' in EuropeDeutsche WelleVaccination Gaps Lead To Dangerous Measles Outbreaks In Europe: ReportNDTVStates...
  • Placer lags state school vaccination rate - Auburn Journal Yesterday
    Auburn JournalPlacer lags state school vaccination rateAuburn JournalPlacer County's immunization rate for kindergartners rose to 92.4 percent — up by 3.6 percentage points from 2015-16's 88.8 percent rate. The latest report comes more than two years after a measles scare gripped California, touched off by an outbreak ...
  • Despite vaccination success, US still faces outbreaks - WJBD Online Tuesday
    WJBD OnlineDespite vaccination success, US still faces outbreaksWJBD OnlineIn the U.S., overall vaccination compliance remains high for many childhood immunizations, with at least 90 percent of children getting the recommended vaccinations on time for measles/mumps/rubella, polio and chickenpox, according to a 2015 report ...and more »
  • California vaccination rates up sharply in wake of new law - San Francisco Chronicle Apr 22, 2017
    San Francisco ChronicleCalifornia vaccination rates up sharply in wake of new lawSan Francisco ChronicleAfter a January 2015 measles outbreak that seemed to confirm their worst concerns, new laws and focused efforts by counties and school districts to increase vaccinations had an almost immediate impact. In 2016, the state vaccination rate rose to 95.6 ...
  • Measles outbreak surging in Italy as officials urge confidence in vaccines - CNN Apr 20, 2017
    CNNMeasles outbreak surging in Italy as officials urge confidence in vaccinesCNNMore than 95% of the population need to be vaccinated for the measles virus not to persist within a population, known as the herd immunity threshold. In 2015, WHO data shows coverage in Italy at 83% for those who received a second dose of a measles ...Measles outbreak surging in Italy - CNN.comCNN Internationalall 52 news articles »

Man Made

Man Made Viruses as Bio-NanoTechnology


Virology News -- ScienceDaily
Biology Virus - Google News
  • Using rooster testes to learn how the body fights viruses - Phys.Org Today 8:29 am
    Phys.OrgUsing rooster testes to learn how the body fights virusesPhys.OrgResearchers from the University of Rochester Center for RNA Biology: From Genome to Therapeutics examined the role of piRNA in safeguarding the integrity of the genetic information in germ cells. It's known that piRNA—a type of ribonucleic acid (RNA) ...and more »
  • How to tackle a virus? Learn from the arms race - Irish Times Yesterday
    Irish TimesHow to tackle a virus? Learn from the arms raceIrish Times“I think that in Ireland we need to support fundamental research more, because without that engine it is more difficult to do the applied science that leads more directly to benefits for Ireland and for humankind in general, particularly in biology ...
  • How viruses beat a superbug — and saved a man after nine months of near-certain death - The San Diego Union-Tribune Yesterday
    The San Diego Union-TribuneHow viruses beat a superbug — and saved a man after nine months of near-certain deathThe San Diego Union-TribuneIn the end, it was viruses, not an antibiotic, that saved Tom Patterson's life after a superbug infection he suffered in Egypt left him hallucinating, comatose and near death for months. Acinetobacter baumannii, a type of toxin-excreting bacteria ...and more »
  • University of Mary student discovers new bacteria-killing virus - Bismarck Tribune Apr 22, 2017
    Bismarck TribuneUniversity of Mary student discovers new bacteria-killing virusBismarck TribuneUniversity of Mary biology students, from left, Kathleen Hecker, Micah Zimmerman and Matthew Kuznia work together in a lab as part of the SEA-PHAGES program. Students collected bacteria from various soil samples for their research. Hecker is from ...
  • New CRISPR tool can detect tiny amounts of viruses - Science Magazine Apr 13, 2017
    Science MagazineNew CRISPR tool can detect tiny amounts of virusesScience MagazineThis exquisitely sensitive and specific tool promises to help detect diseases that other diagnostics miss, and it's simple and cheap to use. Sexier still, it exploits a variation of CRISPR, the genome-editing method that has become the rage in biology ...Harnessing CRISPR for rapid detection of viral and bacterial infectionScience Dailyall 26 news articles »


Editor Mary E. Hopper
Contributor Neil R. Carlson

© Cosma creator mehopper editor mehopper revised 7/17/2016 v.1.5
  1. ^ virus. (2015). In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary (11th ed.). Retrieved June 21, 2015, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/virus