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: any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as extremely simple microorganisms or as extremely complex molecules, that typically contain a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material but no semipermeable membrane, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in humans, lower animals, or plants (virus, 2015)
Scientists Discover 'Frankenvirus' in Siberian Tundra
30,000-Year-Old Virus Found In Siberia
Ancient squirrel's nest leads to discovery of giant virus (Jen Christensen, CNN.com)
In-depth study of Mollivirus sibericum, a new 30,000-y-old giant virus infecting Acanthamoeba (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America)
Earlier, March 2014
A 30,000-Year-Old Virus has Come Back to Life (Mar 4, 2014)
30,000-year-old giant virus 'comes back to life' (Rebecca Morelle, BBC News)
Scientists dig up giant virus more than 30,000 years old in SiberiaBy Jethro Mullen, CNN
Giant Viruses Are Ancient Living Organisms (U. of Ill., Laboratory Equipment)
not plant or animal
Flu Attack! How A Virus Invades Your Body
Beauty of Nature - Viruses
BBC: The threat of Drug Resistant Viruses
CDC: Antiviral Drug-Resistance among Influenza Viruses
World Health Organization: Influenza Monitoring Page (with map)
Center For Disease Control: Reconstruction of the 1918 Influenza Pandemic Virus
These are links to resources organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma.
Subject Specific Links
MicrobeWiki: Viral Biorealm
New World Encyclopedia
Tree of Life Web Project, Viruses
Dewey 579.2 Viruses and subviral organisms (BUBL LINK)
Internet Public Library
Best of the Web
Library of Congress
Library of Congress
UPenn Online Books
Barnes and Noble
Open Education Consortium
Should You Worry About Measles?
Doctors Work to Contain Measles Outbreak Before Super Bowl
Measles Fact Sheet (WHO)
The History of Vaccines (The College of Physicians of Philadelphia)
Measles Outbreak 2015 - Google News
SD Doctor Stresses Importance Of Vaccines Following Measles Outbreak In Minnesota - KDLT News
KDLT NewsSD Doctor Stresses Importance Of Vaccines Following Measles Outbreak In MinnesotaKDLT NewsIn 2014, South Dakota saw 13 cases of the measles and one more case in 2015. Now Minnesota is dealing with their own outbreak. The state Health Department there has confirmed 24 cases and almost all of them have something in common. Those infected ...Vaccine gaps 'cause measles outbreaks' in EuropeDeutsche WelleVaccination Gaps Lead To Dangerous Measles Outbreaks In Europe: ReportNDTVStates...
Placer lags state school vaccination rate - Auburn Journal
Auburn JournalPlacer lags state school vaccination rateAuburn JournalPlacer County's immunization rate for kindergartners rose to 92.4 percent — up by 3.6 percentage points from 2015-16's 88.8 percent rate. The latest report comes more than two years after a measles scare gripped California, touched off by an outbreak ...
Despite vaccination success, US still faces outbreaks - WJBD Online
WJBD OnlineDespite vaccination success, US still faces outbreaksWJBD OnlineIn the U.S., overall vaccination compliance remains high for many childhood immunizations, with at least 90 percent of children getting the recommended vaccinations on time for measles/mumps/rubella, polio and chickenpox, according to a 2015 report ...and more »
California vaccination rates up sharply in wake of new law - San Francisco Chronicle
Apr 22, 2017
San Francisco ChronicleCalifornia vaccination rates up sharply in wake of new lawSan Francisco ChronicleAfter a January 2015 measles outbreak that seemed to confirm their worst concerns, new laws and focused efforts by counties and school districts to increase vaccinations had an almost immediate impact. In 2016, the state vaccination rate rose to 95.6 ...
Measles outbreak surging in Italy as officials urge confidence in vaccines - CNN
Apr 20, 2017
CNNMeasles outbreak surging in Italy as officials urge confidence in vaccinesCNNMore than 95% of the population need to be vaccinated for the measles virus not to persist within a population, known as the herd immunity threshold. In 2015, WHO data shows coverage in Italy at 83% for those who received a second dose of a measles ...Measles outbreak surging in Italy - CNN.comCNN Internationalall 52 news articles »
Man Made Viruses as Bio-NanoTechnology
Virology News -- ScienceDaily
Using 3-D weapons of science to fight infectious diseases
Researchers have achieved a significant milestone in the effort to understand pathogens responsible for some of the world’s most deadly infectious diseases.
Can airborne viruses survive in water?
Apr 21, 2017
A new study challenges the tenet that herpes viruses, like most enveloped viruses, are relatively unstable outside their host. Under a variety of conditions equine herpesvirus remained stable and infectious over a three week period. This suggests that untreated water could be a source of infection by some herpesviruses.
Scientists uncover details on the rise of a tick-borne disease on Long Island
Apr 20, 2017
Scientists report elevated levels of a pathogen responsible for the tick-borne disease babesiosis in Suffolk County, New York, where rates are the highest in the state.
Research uncovers life-saving benefits in the battle against viruses
Apr 20, 2017
At-risk patients, such as those with HIV or transplant recipients, could benefit from potentially life-saving study, say investigators.
Researchers identify tactic Dengue virus uses to delay triggering immune response
Apr 18, 2017
Researchers describe novel mechanism cells use to recognize earliest stages of infection and how virus evades triggering an immune response.
Biology Virus - Google News
Using rooster testes to learn how the body fights viruses - Phys.Org
Today 8:29 am
Phys.OrgUsing rooster testes to learn how the body fights virusesPhys.OrgResearchers from the University of Rochester Center for RNA Biology: From Genome to Therapeutics examined the role of piRNA in safeguarding the integrity of the genetic information in germ cells. It's known that piRNA—a type of ribonucleic acid (RNA) ...and more »
How to tackle a virus? Learn from the arms race - Irish Times
Irish TimesHow to tackle a virus? Learn from the arms raceIrish Times“I think that in Ireland we need to support fundamental research more, because without that engine it is more difficult to do the applied science that leads more directly to benefits for Ireland and for humankind in general, particularly in biology ...
How viruses beat a superbug — and saved a man after nine months of near-certain death - The San Diego Union-Tribune
The San Diego Union-TribuneHow viruses beat a superbug — and saved a man after nine months of near-certain deathThe San Diego Union-TribuneIn the end, it was viruses, not an antibiotic, that saved Tom Patterson's life after a superbug infection he suffered in Egypt left him hallucinating, comatose and near death for months. Acinetobacter baumannii, a type of toxin-excreting bacteria ...and more »
University of Mary student discovers new bacteria-killing virus - Bismarck Tribune
Apr 22, 2017
Bismarck TribuneUniversity of Mary student discovers new bacteria-killing virusBismarck TribuneUniversity of Mary biology students, from left, Kathleen Hecker, Micah Zimmerman and Matthew Kuznia work together in a lab as part of the SEA-PHAGES program. Students collected bacteria from various soil samples for their research. Hecker is from ...
New CRISPR tool can detect tiny amounts of viruses - Science Magazine
Apr 13, 2017
Science MagazineNew CRISPR tool can detect tiny amounts of virusesScience MagazineThis exquisitely sensitive and specific tool promises to help detect diseases that other diagnostics miss, and it's simple and cheap to use. Sexier still, it exploits a variation of CRISPR, the genome-editing method that has become the rage in biology ...Harnessing CRISPR for rapid detection of viral and bacterial infectionScience Dailyall 26 news articles »
Mary E. Hopper
Neil R. Carlson
virus. (2015). In
Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary
(11th ed.). Retrieved June 21, 2015, from
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