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Cosma arrow.gif communication arrow.gif knowledgearrow.gif realmarrow.gif terrestrial arrow.gif water
water : the liquid that descends from the clouds as rain, forms streams, lakes, and seas, and is a major constituent of all living matter and that when pure is an odorless, tasteless, very slightly compressible liquid oxide of hydrogen H2O which appears bluish in thick layers, freezes at 0° C and boils at 100° C, has a maximum density at 4° C and a high specific heat, is feebly ionized to hydrogen and hydroxyl ions, and is a poor conductor of electricity and a good solvent (water, 2015) [1]blank.gifWebster | OneLook | Visuwords
hydrosphere : aqueous envelope of the earth including bodies of water and aqueous vapor in the atmosphere (hydrosphere, 2015) [2]blank.gifWebster | OneLook | Visuwords
marine : of or relating to the sea (marine, 2015) [3]blank.gifWebster | OneLook | Visuwords


Scientists Find Deepest Part Of Ocean Is Full Of Eerie Noises

First Audio Recordings From the Bottom of the Mariana Trench are Nightmare Fuel (Maddie Stone, Gizmodo)
Mariana Trench: 7 miles deep, the ocean is still a noisy place (Oregon State University)

Mariana Trench (James Cameron's Deep Sea Challenge, National Geographic)
Mariana Trench (Wikipedia)



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Earth blank.gif
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life blank.gif
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plant blank.gif water (aquatic)

animal blank.gif invertebrate blank.gif crustacean blank.gif shrimpblank.giflobsterblank.gifcrab blank.gif vertebrate blank.gif fishblank.gifamphibianblank.gifreptile
mammal (marine) blank.gif cetacean blank.gifwhaleblank.gifdolphinblank.gifporpoise blank.gif sirenian blank.gifmanatee blank.gifpinnipedblank.gifsealblank.gifwalrus

See also sea transportation


NASA: The Water Cycle Animation

The Earth's Water Cycle - Environmental Science

These are links to resources organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. more...


Subject Specific Links

OneLook Merriam-Webster Free Wiktionary Visuwords


Specific Dewey 551.46 Oceanography (BUBL LINK) Dewey 551.48 Hydrology (BUBL LINK)
Dewey 578.77 Marine biology (BUBL LINK)Dewey 578.778 Coral reefs (BUBL LINK)
Free Internet Public Library dmoz Commercial Best of the Web

DuckDuckGo WolframAlpha

shop Amazon eBay gift Zazzle

Library of Congress

WorldCat (OAIster) Library of Congress UPenn Online Books Open Library Hathi Trust

ISBNdb Google Books eBooks.com Barnes and Noble Amazon eBay Books

Open Education Consortium


ScienceDaily.com, nature of water
ScienceDaily.com, Earth's climate, water
ScienceDaily.com, oceanography
ScienceDaily.com, marine biology
ScienceDaily.com, sea life
New Scientist Topic Guide - Mysteries of the Deep Sea
NPR Archives Google News

Google Scholar

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC, NOAA)



Dive beneath the surface and visit the deepest part of the ocean with Google Earth. Explore the Mariana Trench with top marine experts, learn about ocean observations, climate change, and endangered species.

Explore the ocean with Google Maps

Google adds coral reef panoramas to Street View maps (BBC News)

Google Ocean
Google Earth: Ocean


Scientists Look to Space to Map Ocean Floor

Satellites detect 'thousands' of new ocean-bottom mountains (Jonathan Amos, BBC News)
New Map Exposes Previously Unseen Details of Seafloor (Scripps Institute)
New ocean floor map reveals hidden seamounts – thousands of them (Becky Oskin, Christian Science Monitor)
Explore The World's Most Detailed Map Of The Seafloor, Released Today (Robbie Gonzalez, io9)

New global marine gravity model from CryoSat-2 and Jason-1 reveals buried tectonic structure (David Sandwell, R. Dietmar Müller, Walter Smith, Emmanuel Garcia and Richard Francis, Science)

What is a seamount? (National Ocean Service, NOAA)
Seamounts (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution)
Seamount( Encyclopedia of Earth)
Seamounts (National Geographic Magazine)
Seamount (Encyclopedia Britannica)
Seamount (Wikipedia)


10 weird things you never knew about the ocean’s deepest places (Alan Jamieson, Science Alert)


National Geographic Society's Pristine Seas programme

Journey to Chile's Wild Islands

An Ecologist's Passion for Preserving the Ocean's Pristine Places (Kennedy Warne, National Geographic)

Pristine Seas Project (National Geographic)
Enric Sala's Bio (National Geographic)
More YouTube videos about Pristine Seas Project...


How Seawater Desalination Works

"Drinking from the sea", explore how and why sea water is desalinated

Qatar's Ambitious Plan to Turn the Desert Green

Solution: Hitachi solar-powered desalination plants, Abu Dhabi

Renewable Energy: Solar Water Distillers

Can Sun and Wind Make More Salt Water Drinkable? (Marianne Lavelle, National Geographic)

Waterblog (Suez Environment)
Desalination news and Water Reuse news (IDE)
Desalination (Wikipedia)


Introducing Mission Aquarius - Dive into an Underwater Laboratory

Tour The NOAA Aquarius Underwater Laboratory

With Funding Gone, Last Undersea Lab Could Surface (Greg Allen, NPR)
Update: A new age of Aquarius (Kevin Wadlow, KeysNet, Keynoter Publishing)

Mission 31

Cousteau's Grandson to Embark on 31-Day Underwater Mission

Aquanauts Head Underwater in Islamorada for 31-Day Mission (Gilma Avalos, NBC Miami)

Fabien Cousteau’s Blog
Fabien Cousteau’s Mission 31


Tide tables, sometimes called tide charts, are used for tidal prediction and show the daily times and heights of high water and low water, usually for a particular location. Tide heights at intermediate times (between high and low water) can be approximately calculated using the rule of twelfths or more accurately by using a published tidal curve for the location. (Tide table, 2016) [4] Wikipedia
Tides: Crash Course Astronomy #8

US Regions with Tide Predictions and Links (Salt Water Tides)
WWW Tide and Current Predictor (Dean Pentcheff)


1,200 Square Feet Under the Sea

Underwater Hotel Dubai

The Hydropolis - Underwater Luxury Boutique Hotel

The worlds first underwater hotel(s)?

Plans Made for World's Largest Underwater Hotel (Weather.com)


Underwater Art Exhibit Debuts on Artificial Reef Off Key West

Deep Sea Exhibit

The Vandenberg Finally Sinks Off Key West

Is this Atlantis?: Photographer creates magnificent underwater world for exhibition that can only be viewed 145 feet under the sea (Daily Mail Reporter)
Photographer Andreas Franke has created a similar mythical underwater world for a new exhibition - but you can only see it with your scuba gear on. Armed with his camera, Mr Franke dove down to the Vandenberg, a United States missile tracking ship that sunk in 2009 off the coast of Key West, Florida, and used the spectacular images he took as a canvas for a surreal civilisation that never existed.


John Denver, Calypso


MythBusters: Shark Dive

Da-da da-dum...

Discovery VR has released a compelling, albeit potentially disturbing, new 360 VR experience. They did an excellent job of filming a special about sharks in a format that is able to be viewed on pretty much every possible platform.

The narrator provides a steady stream of entertaining and educational explanation as you get closer and closer to a swarm of sharks. The experience is set up incrementally, so at first you don't feel very immersed or intimidated, but the further you go, the closer they get, the more immersive it gets, until you find yourself right in the middle of the action, and the feeling of "presence" sneaks right up on you.

Of course, as usual, the most immersive way to see it is with Samsung's Gear VR where you can find the videos on their Milk VR video service. If you don't happen to have the Gear VR (or an Oculus Developer Kit), you can always try Google's far more affordable Cardboard viewer.

You can even get at least some sense of the experience on any device with an updated Chrome or Firefox browser. These videos are posted on YouTube in a 360 format that works in browsers. If you haven't tried playing with that feature yet, this is a great time to do that with these videos.

MythBusters: Shark Shipwreck (360 Video)

MythBusters: Sharks Everywhere! (360 Video)

MythBusters: Underwater Shark Experiment (360 Video)

This experience is definitely one of the better ones to be posted on Milk VR so far. There is still a long way to go before any of this can be dubbed a "killer app," but being able to feel like you're swimming around with sharks up close and personal definitely demands a certain amount of attention!

Discovery VR Dumps You Into (Virtual) Shark-Infested Waters (David Murphy, PC Mag)

Mythbusters Shark Dive (Discovery VR)

The Blu VR: An Immersive Ocean Experience

These resources requires a GearVR device to experience in full 3D. Learn more...

The Blu VR is a fantastic, narrated virtual encounter with the biggest creatures in the ocean. A nice variety of species are included, but ultimately it is one of the first ones that you see that will stick with you, because that encounter involves staring right into the eye of an 80 foot blue whale, and yes, it's incredibly immersive and feels pretty much to scale (gulp!). All of the encounters are actually about as up-close and personal as you can get. In most cases it feels as if the sea creatures should be touching you, eating you, or even going right through you. Some videos of 3D/VR experiences do a great job of doing the work justice. Alas, this trailer doesn't do that very well, but it is still a nice teaser. If you're a teacher trying to rationalize buying a Gear VR, or just a fan of the idea of swimming with huge ocean creatures, then this might just be the app to put you right on over the edge into ownership.

TheBluVR Launch Trailer - Built for Samsung Gear VR

TheBluVR (Official Website)


These resources require SecondLife (SL) and some use SLurls. Learn more...

SecondLife Destination Guide, Underwater Related Sites

Center for Water Studies, Better World (SLurl)

Abyss Observatory

Abyss Observatory (Destination Guide)
Abyss Observatory (SLurl)

Cave Rua Water Gardens (Destination Guide)
Cave Rua Water Gardens (SLurl)


Nature of Water News -- ScienceDaily
Water News -- ScienceDaily
Oceanography News -- ScienceDaily
Marine Biology News -- ScienceDaily
Sea Life News -- ScienceDaily


    Editor Mary E. Hopper
    Contributor Neil R. Carlson


    © Cosma creator mehopper editor mehopper revised 7/17/2016 v.1.5

    1. ^ water. (2015). In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary (11th ed.). Retrieved June 21, 2015, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/water
    2. ^ hydrosphere. (2015). In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary (11th ed.). Retrieved June 21, 2015, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/hydrosphere
    3. ^ marine. (2015). In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary (11th ed.). Retrieved June 21, 2015, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/marine
    4. ^ Tide table. (2016). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved January 6, 2016, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tide_table